Cornus canadensis

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 1: 118. 1753.

Common names: Bunchberry dwarf cornel quatre-temps
WeedyIllustrated
Synonyms: Arctocrania canadensis (Linnaeus) Nakai Chamaepericlymenum canadense (Linnaeus) Ascherson & Graebner Cornella canadensis (Linnaeus) Rydberg Cornus canadensis subsp. pristina Gervais & Blondeau C. cyananthus Rafinesque Cynoxylon canadense (Linnaeus) J. H. Schaffner Mesomora canadensis (Linnaeus) Lunell
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 12. Treatment on page 447. Mentioned on page 446.

Stems erect, green, 5–25 cm, appressed-hairy; nodes 4–6, internodes progressively longer distally; branches only at distalmost node, much shorter than distal internodes so stems appear unbranched. Leaves at all but distalmost node nonchlorophyllous, opposite, scalelike, caducous, at distalmost node chlorophyllous, appearing to in whorl of 6 (sometimes 4 on sterile stems), well developed, persistent; distalmost leaves: petiole 0.5–2.8 mm; blade obovate, ovate, elliptic, or rhombic, 2–7 × 1–4.5 cm, apex acute or short acuminate, abaxial surface pale green, sparsely appressed-hairy to glabrate, adaxial surface green, appressed-hairy; secondary-veins 2–3 per side, all arising from proximal 1/2. Inflorescences 12–40-flowered; peduncle 10–30 mm; primary branches 0.5–2.5 mm; bracts greenish white to white, occasionally red-tipped or red-tinged, ± equal, ovate, 5–15 × 5–15 mm, apex acute to acuminate. Pedicels 0.5–3 mm, sparsely appressed-hairy. Flowers: hypanthium cream, 1–2 mm, densely appressed-hairy; sepals cream, turning purple as fruit matures, 0.1–0.3 mm, apex rounded, membranous, glabrous, eglandular; petals cream, 1–2 mm, apical awn 0.3–1.2 mm; nectary cream or purplish black. Drupes 5–15 per infructescences, red, globose, 6–9 mm; stone ovoid, 2.3–3.3 × 1.7–2.3 mm, smooth, apex rounded. 2n = 22, 44.


Phenology: Flowering May–Jul; fruiting Aug–Oct.
Habitat: Dry to moist broadleaf or coniferous forests, roadbanks, marshes, bogs.
Elevation: 0–3400 m.

Distribution

V12 556-distribution-map.jpg

Greenland, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Colo., Conn., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., Asia

Discussion

C. Gervais and M. Blondeau (2003) showed that Cornus canadensis includes both diploid and tetraploid populations, which can be distinguished solely by pollen size and chromosome number. The diploids, which they called subsp. pristina, are found in Alaska and western and northern Canada (including the northern parts of Labrador and Quebec), and the tetraploids, which they called subsp. canadensis, are found in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Unfortunately, Gervais and Blondeau did not sample populations from most of the species’ distribution in the United States.

Reports of Cornus canadensis from California and Oregon (for example, C. L. Hitchcock A. Cronquist 1973; J. R. Shevock 2012) represent C. unalaschkensis.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Cornus canadensis"
sparsely appressed-hairy +  and glabrate +
versatile +  and dorsifixed +
Rounded (?) +, Acute (?) +  and Acuminate (?) +
membranous +
0.3mm +  and 1.2mm +
curling +
ornamented +
Zack E. Murrell +  and Derick B. Poindexter +
Linnaeus +
Cornus +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
rhombic +, elliptic +, ovate +  and obovate +
1cm;4.5cm +
greenish white;white occasionally red-tipped or red-tinged +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
Bunchberry +, dwarf cornel +  and quatre-temps +
expanding +  and minute +
Greenland +, St. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.W.T. +, N.S. +, Nunavut +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and Asia +
distinct +
globose +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
0–3400 m. +
Dry to moist broadleaf or coniferous forests, roadbanks, marshes, bogs. +
appressed-hairy +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
terminal +  and axillary +
persistent +  and caducous +
scale-like +
purplish black +  and cream +
intrastaminal +
appressed-hairy +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
distinct +
recurved +  and spreading +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.28 cm2.8 mm <br />0.0028 m <br />) +
Flowering May–Jul +  and fruiting Aug–Oct. +
[1-]2[-4]-carpellate +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
connate +  and distinct +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br />) +
Weedy +  and Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
0.23 cm2.3 mm <br />0.0023 m <br /> (0.33 cm3.3 mm <br />0.0033 m <br />) +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (0.23 cm2.3 mm <br />0.0023 m <br />) +
Arctocrania canadensis +, Chamaepericlymenum canadense +, Cornella canadensis +, Cornus canadensis subsp. pristina +, C. cyananthus +, Cynoxylon canadense +  and Mesomora canadensis +
Cornus canadensis +
Cornus subg. Arctocrania +
species +