Ephedra trifurca

Torrey ex S. Watson

Botany (Fortieth Parallel): 329. 1871.

Common names: Mexican-tea
Illustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 2.

Shrubs erect, 0.5–5 m. Bark gray, cracked and irregularly fissured. Branches alternate or whorled, rigid, angle of divergence about 30°. Twigs pale green, becoming yellow, then gray with age, glaucous, with numerous very fine longitudinal grooves; internodes 3–10 cm. Terminal buds spinelike, to 10 mm. Leaves in whorls of 3, 5–15 mm, connate to 1/2–3/4 their length; bases becoming gray and shredded with age; apex spinose. Pollen cones 1–several at node, obovoid, 6–10 mm, on short, scaly peduncles; bracts in 8–12 whorls of 3, reddish-brown, obovate, slightly clawed, 3–4 × 2–3 mm, membranous; bracteoles nearly equaling bracts; sporangiophores 4–5 mm, exserted to 1/4 their length, with 4–5 short-stalked microsporangia. Seed-cones 1–several at node, obovoid, 10–15 mm, on short, scaly peduncles (rarely sessile); bracts in 6–9 whorls of 3, circular, 8–12 × 8–12 mm, papery, translucent with reddish-brown center and base, base clawed, margins entire. Seeds 1 (–3), ellipsoid, 8–15 × 1.5–3 mm, light-brown, smooth.


Phenology: Coning late winter–early spring.
Habitat: Dry rocky slopes to flat sandy areas
Elevation: 500–2000 m

Distribution

V2 18-distribution-map.gif

Ariz., Calif., N.Mex., Tex., Mexico in Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sonora

Discussion

The hybrid Ephedra × intermixta is discussed under E. torreyana.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Ephedra trifurca"
Obtuse (?) +  and Setaceous (?) +
Dennis Wm. Stevenson +
Torrey ex S. Watson +
fissured +
whorled +  and opposite +
reddish-brown +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
clawed +  and obovate +
papery +  and membranous +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
whorled +  and alternate +
yellowish green;olive-green +
reddish-brown +
Mexican-tea +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
on short to long peduncle +, sessile +  and compound +
subtending +
Ariz. +, Calif. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, Mexico in Baja California +, Chihuahua +, Coahuila +  and Sonora +
500–2000 m +
Dry rocky slopes to flat sandy areas +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
in whorls +  and opposite +
ephemeral +
connate +
0;1/2-3/4 +
photosynthetic +
scale-like +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
single-integumented +
Coning late winter–early spring. +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
whorled +, opposite +  and overlapping +
fleshy +, papery +  and membranous +
Botany (Fortieth Parallel): +
ellipsoid;ovoid obovoid or nearly globose +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
smooth to scabrous +
ellipsoid +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Illustrated +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Ephedra trifurca +
species +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
gray +, yellow +  and pale green +
3 +, 6 +  and 9 +