familyPinaceae
genusAbies

Abies fraseri

(Pursh) Poiret in Lamarck et al.

in Lamarck et al.,Encycl. 5: 35. 1817. 1817

Common names: Fraser fir southern balsam fir
EndemicConservation concern
Basionyms: Pinus fraseri Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 639. 1814
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 2.

Trees to 25m; trunk to 0.75m diam.; crown spirelike. Bark gray, thin, smooth, with age developing appressed reddish scales at trunk base. Branches diverging from trunk at right angles; twigs opposite, pale yellowbrown, pubescence reddish. Buds exposed, light-brown, conic, small, resinous, apex acute; basal scales short, broad, equilaterally triangular, glabrous, resinous, margins entire, apex sharp-pointed. Leaves 1.2–2.5cm × 1.5–2mm, 2-ranked, particularly in lower parts of tree, to spiraled, flexible; cross-section flat, grooved adaxially; odor turpentinelike, strong; abaxial surface with (8–) 10 (–12) stomatal rows on each side of midrib; adaxial surface dark lustrous green, sometimes slightly glaucous, with 0–3 stomatal rows at midleaf, these more numerous toward leaf apex; apex slightly notched to rounded; resin canals large, ± median, away from margins and midway between abaxial and adaxial epidermal layers. Pollen cones at pollination reddish yellow or yellowish green. Seed-cones cylindric, 3.5–6 × 2.5–4cm, dark purple overlaid with yellowish green bracts, sessile, apex round; scales ca. 0.7–1 × 1–1.3cm, pubescent; bracts exserted and reflexed over cone-scales. Seeds 4–5 × 2–3mm, body brown; wing about as long as body, purple; cotyledons ca. 5.2n =24.


Habitat: Mountain forests
Elevation: 1500m

Discussion

Some (e.g., B.F. Jacobs et al. 1984) have argued that Fraser fir is at the end of a disjunct cline of balsam fir and perhaps does not deserve separate specific status. A.E. Matzenko (1968) took the opposite view, classifying Fraser fir and balsam fir in different taxonomic series of the genus.

Of conservation concern.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Abies fraseri"
green +  and dark +
fan--shaped +
Richard S. Hunt +
(Pursh) Poiret in Lamarck et al. +
twisted;sessile +
2-ranked +  and 1-ranked +
constricted +
broadened +
Pinus fraseri +
yellowish green +
fertile +  and vegetative +
flattened +
resinous +
light-brown +
small +
Fraser fir +  and southern balsam fir +
turpentinelike +
spirelike +
N.C. +, Tenn. +  and Va. +
Mountain forests +
less circular +  and broadly elliptic +
raised +, flush +  and prominent +
grooved +  and twisted +
spiraled +  and 2-ranked +
persisting +
1.2cm;2.5cm +
usually notched +  and rounded +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
not winged +  and 2-winged +
yellowish green +  and reddish yellow +
oblong-cylindric +  and ovate +
in Lamarck et al.,Encycl. +
fibrous;woody +
arranged +  and overlapping +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
flattened +
1cm;1.3cm +
grouped +  and solitary +
long-persistent +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
not falling +  and maturing +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (?) +
twisted +  and sessile +
2-ranked +  and 1-ranked +
constricted +
broadened +
reduced;well-defined short +
Endemic +  and Conservation concern +
Abies fraseri +
species +
decurrent +  and elongate +
pale yellowbrown +
fan--shaped +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (2,500 cm25,000 mm <br />25 m <br />) +
reduced +