familyPinaceae
genusAbies

Abies grandis

(Douglas ex D. Don in Lambert) Lindley

Penny Cycl. 1: 30. 1833. 1833

Common names: Grand fir lowland white fir sapin grandissime
IllustratedEndemic
Basionyms: Pinus grandis Douglas ex D. Don in Lambert, Descr. Pinus [ed. 3] 2: unnumbered page between 144 and 145. 1832
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 2.

Trees to 75m; trunk to 1.55m diam.; crown conic, in age round topped or straggly. Bark gray, thin to thick, with age becoming brown, often with reddish periderm visible in furrows bounded by hard flat ridges. Branches spreading, drooping; twigs mostly opposite, light-brown, pubescent. Buds exposed, purple, green, or brown, globose, small to moderately large, resinous, apex round; basal scales short, broad, equilaterally triangular, slightly pubescent or glabrous, resinous, margins entire, apex pointed or slightly rounded. Leaves (1–) 2–6cm × l. 5–2.5mm, 2-ranked, flexible, with leaves at center of branch segment longer than those near ends, or with distinct long and short leaves intermixed, proximal portion ± straight, leaves higher in tree spiraled and 1-ranked; cross-section flat, grooved adaxially; odor pungent, faintly turpentinelike; abaxial surface with 5–7 stomatal rows on each side of midrib; adaxial surface light to dark lustrous green, lacking stomates or with a few stomates toward leaf apex; apex distinctly notched (rarely rounded); resin canals small, near margins and abaxial epidermal layer. Pollen cones at pollination bluish red, purple, orange, yellow, or ± green. Seed-cones cylindric, (5–) 6–7 (–12) × 3–3.5cm, light green, dark blue, deep purple, or gray, sessile, apex rounded; scales ca. 2–2.5 × 2–2.5cm, densely pubescent; bracts included. Seeds 6–8 × 3–4mm, body tan; wing about 1.5 times as long as body, tan with rosy tinge; cotyledons (4–) 5–6 (–7). 2n =24.


Habitat: Moist, coastal coniferous forests and mountain slopes
Elevation: 0–1500m

Distribution

B.C., Calif., Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Wash.

Discussion

Abies grandis is rather uniform morphologically and chemically. At its southern limit in southern Oregon and northern California, it introgresses with A. concolor (J.L. Hamrick and W.J. Libby 1972; E.Zavarin et al. 1975; D.B. Zobel 1973). In the area of introgression, specimens in lower, wetter habitats are best assigned to A. grandis; those in higher, drier habitats, to A. concolor. Others are best considered to be A. concolor × grandis.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"timesaslongasbody" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Abies grandis"
green +, light +  and dark +
topped +
Rounded (?) +, Notched (?) +, Pointed (?) +  and Round (?) +
fan--shaped +
Richard S. Hunt +
(Douglas ex D. Don in Lambert) Lindley +
thin +  and thick +
glabrous +  and pubescent +
twisted;sessile +
2-ranked +  and 1-ranked +
constricted +
broadened +
Pinus grandis +
drooping +  and spreading +
fertile +  and vegetative +
flattened +
resinous +
brown +, green +  and purple +
small +  and moderately large +
Grand fir +, lowland white fir +  and sapin grandissime +
turpentinelike +  and pungent +
round +  and conic +
B.C. +, Calif. +, Idaho +, Mont. +, Oreg. +  and Wash. +
0–1500m +
Moist, coastal coniferous forests and mountain slopes +
less circular +  and broadly elliptic +
raised +, flush +  and prominent +
grooved +  and twisted +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
1-ranked +, spiraled +  and 2-ranked +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
persisting +
distinct +
long +  and longer +
usually notched +  and rounded +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
not winged +  and 2-winged +
green +, yellow +, orange +, purple +  and bluish red +
oblong-cylindric +  and ovate +
Penny Cycl. +
fibrous;woody +
arranged +  and overlapping +
flattened +
2cm;2.5cm +
grouped +  and solitary +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
gray +, purple +, deep +, dark blue +  and light green +
long-persistent +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
not falling +  and maturing +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (?) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (?) +
twisted +  and sessile +
2-ranked +  and 1-ranked +
constricted +
broadened +
reduced;well-defined short +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
few +  and lacking +
Abies grandis +
species +
decurrent +  and elongate +
light-brown +
fan--shaped +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (7,500 cm75,000 mm <br />75 m <br />) +
tan with rosy tinge +
reduced +