Acorus americanus

(Rafinesque) Rafinesque

New Flora and Botany of North America 1: 57. 1836.

Common names: Sweet-flag belle-angélique
IllustratedEndemic
Basionym: Acorus calamus var. americanus Rafinesque Med. Fl. 1: 25. 1828
Synonyms: Acorus calamus var. americanus (Rafinesque) H. Wulff
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 22.

Leaves basally white with pink or red, otherwise bright green; major veins 2–6, ± equally raised above leaf surface; cross-section swollen in center, gradually tapering to ends. Vegetative leaves to 1.45 m; sheathing base (proximal part of leaf) 18.1–51.8 (–58.8) cm; distal part of leaf 31.2–88.6 (–100.4) × 0.3–1.2 cm, usually slightly longer to more than 2 times length of distal leaf, margins usually entire. Sympodial leaf (46–) 56.8–148 (–166.7) cm, usually equal to or slightly longer than vegetative leaves; sheathing base (20.9–) 25.3–74.1 (–100.2) cm; distal part of leaf (20.9–) 27.9–77.9 (–92.6) × 0.3–1.3 cm. Spadix 3.3–7.4 (–8.7) cm × 4.7–10 (–13.3) mm at anthesis; fruiting spadix 3.5–7.8 (–8.8) cm × 6.9–18.2 mm. Flowers 2–3 mm; pollen-grains usually deeply staining in aniline blue. Fruits obpyramidal, 4–6 mm. Seeds (1–) 6 (–14), tan, narrowly oblong to obovate, (2–) 3–4 mm. 2n = 24.


Phenology: Flowering late spring–mid summer.
Habitat: Wet open areas, marshes, swales, and along edges of quiet water
Elevation: 0–900 m

Distribution

V22 42-distribution-map.jpg

Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Alaska, Conn., D.C., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Vt., Va., Wash., Wis.

Discussion

Acorus americanus, a fertile diploid, occurs from northeastern United States across Canada and the northern plains. Specimens from central Siberia with similar leaf venation were examined, and the species is perhaps holarctic in distribution. Examination of additional material is necessary to determine if northern Asian diploid plants are conspecific with A. americanus. In North America, Native Americans probably played a significant role in the present-day distribution of A. americanus because sweet-flag rhizomes and plants were valued by many groups and were objects of trade. Disjunct populations occur in localities that are often near old Native American village sites or camping areas (M. R. Gilmore 1931).

Acorus americanus is susceptible to infection by Uromyces sparganii (Uredinales).

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Acorus americanus"
Sue A. Thompson +
(Rafinesque) Rafinesque +
3-angled +
25.3 cm253 mm <br />0.253 m <br /> (74.1 cm741 mm <br />0.741 m <br />) +
Acorus calamus var. americanus +
Sweet-flag +  and belle-angélique +
tapering +  and swollen +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.W.T. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Alaska +, Conn. +, D.C. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Maine +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +  and Wis. +
0–900 m +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
light-brown;reddish +
obpyramidal +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
Wet open areas, marshes, swales, and along edges of quiet water +
parallel +  and equitant +
148 cm1,480 mm <br />1.48 m <br /> (166.7 cm1,667 mm <br />1.667 m <br />) +
bright green +, , +  and white with pink or white with red +
slightly longer +
77.9 cm779 mm <br />0.779 m <br /> (92.6 cm926 mm <br />0.926 m <br />) +
27.9 cm279 mm <br />0.279 m <br /> (77.9 cm779 mm <br />0.779 m <br />) +
0.3cm;1.3cm +
sword--shaped +
56.8 cm568 mm <br />0.568 m <br /> (?) +  and 148 cm1,480 mm <br />1.48 m <br /> (?) +
rather than transverse plane +
aromatic +
Flowering late spring–mid summer. +
New Flora and Botany of North America +
browne1992a +, duvall1993b +, gilmore1931a +, r1979a +, ray1987a +  and wilson1960b +
near surface +  and creeping +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
narrowly oblong;obovate +
7.4 cm74 mm <br />0.074 m <br /> (8.7 cm87 mm <br />0.087 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.33 cm13.3 mm <br />0.0133 m <br />) +
3.3 cm33 mm <br />0.033 m <br /> (7.4 cm74 mm <br />0.074 m <br />) +
tapering +  and cylindric +
0.47 cm4.7 mm <br />0.0047 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
1 (?) +  and 6 (?) +
Acorus calamus var. americanus +
Acorus americanus +
species +
light-brown +
banks +, stream +  and rocky +