Acorus calamus

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 1: 324. 1753.

Common names: Sweet-flag calamus
IntroducedIllustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 22.

Leaves basally white with pink or red, otherwise bright green; single midvein (secondary midrib) prominently raised above leaf surface, usually somewhat off-center, other veins barely or not raised; cross-section rhomboid. Vegetative leaves to 1.75 m; sheathing base (proximal part of leaf) 22.1–66.5 (–73.3) cm; distal part of leaf 31.9–95.8 (–117.6) × 0.5–2 cm, 1.4–1.8 times longer than proximal part of leaf, margins sometimes undulate or crisped. Sympodial leaf (29.9–) 34.7–159.1 (–183.9) cm, usually shorter than to nearly equal to vegetative leaves; sheathing base 16.1–76.4 (–100.1) cm; distal part of leaf 13.5–86.2 (–101.2) × 0.4–1.9 cm. Spadix (3.8–) 4.9–8.9 cm × 5.3–10.8 mm at anthesis, post-anthesis spadix 5.5–8.7 cm × 6–12.6 mm. Flowers 3–4 mm; pollen-grains not staining in aniline blue. Fruits not produced in North America. 2n = 36.


Phenology: Flowering early spring–early summer.
Habitat: Wet open areas, marshes, swales, and along edges of quiet water
Elevation: 0–900 m

Distribution

V22 447-distribution-map.jpg

Introduced; N.B., N.S., Ont., Que., Ala., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis., Europe, Asia, Africa, Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands

Discussion

Acorus calamus, a sterile triploid, was introduced to North America by early European settlers, who grew it for medicinal uses. Rhizomes propagate easily, and the species has spread throughout northeast and central United States. Scattered populations occur elsewhere. Although leaf and spadix size of A. calamus and A. americanus overlap, those measurements differ significantly, with A. calamus in general having longer and wider leaves and longer spadices.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Acorus calamus"
Sue A. Thompson +
Linnaeus +
3-angled +
16.1 cm161 mm <br />0.161 m <br /> (76.4 cm764 mm <br />0.764 m <br />) +
Sweet-flag +  and calamus +
N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Europe +, Asia +, Africa +, Indian Ocean Islands +  and Pacific Islands +
0–900 m +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
light-brown;reddish +
Wet open areas, marshes, swales, and along edges of quiet water +
parallel +  and equitant +
159.1 cm1,591 mm <br />1.591 m <br /> (183.9 cm1,839 mm <br />1.839 m <br />) +
bright green +, , +  and white with pink or white with red +
86.2 cm862 mm <br />0.862 m <br /> (101.2 cm1,012 mm <br />1.012 m <br />) +
13.5 cm135 mm <br />0.135 m <br /> (86.2 cm862 mm <br />0.862 m <br />) +
1.4-1.8 times longer than proximal part of leaf +
0.4cm;1.9cm +
sword--shaped +
34.7 cm347 mm <br />0.347 m <br /> (?) +  and 159.1 cm1,591 mm <br />1.591 m <br /> (?) +
crisped +  and undulate +
rather than transverse plane +
not raised +  and raised +
aromatic +
Flowering early spring–early summer. +
motley1994a +
near surface +  and creeping +
3.8 cm38 mm <br />0.038 m <br /> (4.9 cm49 mm <br />0.049 m <br />) +
5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br /> (8.7 cm87 mm <br />0.087 m <br />) +
post-anthesis +  and anthesis +
tapering +  and cylindric +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.26 cm12.6 mm <br />0.0126 m <br />) +
Introduced +  and Illustrated +
1 (?) +  and 6 (?) +
Acorus calamus +
species +
light-brown +
banks +, stream +  and rocky +