Agalinis purpurea var. purpurea

Endemic
Synonyms: Agalinis keyensis Pennell A. purpurea var. carteri Pennell A. virgata Rafinesque Gerardia purpurea var. carteri (Pennell) Pennell G. racemulosa Pennell
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 552. Mentioned on page 551.

Stems 4–120 cm; branches ascending, spreading, or arching. Flowers: calyx-tube 3–5 mm; corolla 18–36 mm, lobes spreading to reflexed, (4–) 5–11 mm; distal anthers exserted, perpendicular to filaments, pollen-sacs 2–4.5 mm; style strongly exserted.


Phenology: Flowering Aug–Oct.
Habitat: Moist sandy soils at margins of ponds, lakes, streams, bogs, freshwater and brackish marshes, ditches, pine barrens, meadows, prairies, coastal swales, dry soils, margins of pine plantations, inundated marl prairies.
Elevation: 0–1100 m.

Distribution

Ont., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

Reports of var. purpurea from Maine have not been verified by the authors.

Variety purpurea is most easily confused with Agalinis harperi but differs from A. harperi by characters used in the key and by having leaves usually as long as, or longer than, the internodes they subtend. Plants of A. harperi have leaves shorter than the elongated internodes. The internodes immediately proximal to the racemes are especially elongated in A. harperi, imparting a much more open appearance than the often bushy and leafy var. purpurea. The narrowly linear-leaved plants of var. purpurea found in brackish marshes and pine barrens appear more leafy than A. harperi because of many axillary fascicles and/or axillary branchlets. The calyx lobes of var. purpurea are variable in shape and length but are not keeled like those of A. harperi.

Plants of var. purpurea usually are easily distinguished from Agalinis fasciculata by their glabrate stems and few to no axillary fascicles versus the often harshly, and more uniformly, scabrous stems and abundant axillary fascicles of A. fasciculata. Variety purpurea has spreading to broadly arching branches; branches of A. fasciculata are ascending from a clearly defined elongated main stem and the terminal racemes arch downward as fruits mature. Some plants of var. purpurea in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas are more pubescent than usual and can be confused with A. fasciculata. The larger, recurved trichomes are concentrated along the angles of the main stem and largest branches on A. purpurea. On A. fasciculata the larger trichomes occur on both the angles and faces of the main stem and largest branches. Both taxa may have scabrous branches, especially distally. It is best to evaluate indument on the mid region of the main stem and largest branches when comparing A. fasciculata and A. purpurea.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

erect +  and reflexed +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
rounded +  and gibbous +
Judith M. Canne-Hilliker† +  and John F. Hays +
(Linnaeus) Pennell +
Gerardia purpurea +
fleshy +, rigid +  and not leathery +
arching +, spreading +  and ascending +
scabridulous to sparsely scabrous +  and glabrate +
quadrangular-ridged +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
tubular-campanulate +  and hemispheric +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
bilabiate +  and symmetric +
red spots +, pink +  and rosy pink +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (3.6 cm36 mm <br />0.036 m <br />) +
Ont. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
0–1100 m. +
glabrate +  and lanate +
2 +  and 1 +
indehiscent +, septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
Moist sandy soils at margins of ponds, lakes, streams, bogs, freshwater and brackish marshes, ditches, pine barrens, meadows, prairies, coastal swales, dry soils, margins of pine plantations, inundated marl prairies. +
axillary +  and terminal +
alternate +, subopposite +  and opposite +
deciduous +
yellow;yellow;yellow +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
spreading +  and reflexed +
not keeled +, triangular-subulate +, lanceolate +  and triangular +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
7.5mm;50mm +
linear-lanceolate +  and linear +
0.5mm;4mm +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.75 cm7.5 mm <br />0.0075 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
linear-lanceolate +  and linear +
not fleshy +
0.5mm;4mm +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
campylotropous-like +
spikelike +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
spreading-ascending +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Flowering Aug–Oct. +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
perpendicular +, oblique +  and distal +
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club +
spikelike +
60 +  and 600 +
subequal +
branched +  and simple +
aerial +  and subterranean +
leaning +  and erect +
papillate +  and scabridulous +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (120 cm1,200 mm <br />1.2 m <br />) +
0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br /> (2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.75 cm7.5 mm <br />0.0075 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
linear-lanceolate;linear +
not fleshy +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (?) +
Agalinis keyensis +, A. purpurea var. carteri +, A. virgata +, Gerardia purpurea var. carteri +  and G. racemulosa +
Agalinis purpurea var. purpurea +
Agalinis purpurea +
variety +
campanulate +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (3.6 cm36 mm <br />0.036 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
perennial +  and annual +