Agropyron cristatum

(L.) Gaertn.
Common names: Crested wheatgrass Agropyron accrêté Agropyron à crête
Introduced
Synonyms: Agropyron pectiniforme Agropyron imbricatum Agropyron desertorum Agropyron cristatum subsp. pectinatum Agropyron cristatum subsp. desertorum
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 279.
Please click on the illustration for a higher resolution version.
Illustrator: Cindy Roché

Copyright: Utah State University

Plants occasionally rhizomatous. Culms 25-110 cm, sometimes geniculate. Ligules to 1.5 mm; blades 1.5-6 mm wide, glabrous or pubescent. Spikes 1.3-10.5 (15) cm long, 5-25 mm wide, narrowly to broadly lanceolate, rectangular, or ovate, sometimes tapering distally; internodes (0.2) 0.7-5 (8) mm, glabrous or pilose, sometimes all more or less equal, sometimes short and long internodes alternating within a spike, basal internodes often longer than those at midlength. Spikelets 7-16 mm, diverging at angles of 30-95° at maturity, with 3-6 (8) florets. Glumes 3-6 mm, glabrous or with coarse hairs on the keels, acute, usually awned, awns 1.5-3 mm; lemmas 5-9 mm, glabrous or with hairs, keeled, keels sometimes scabrous distally, apices acute, usually awned, awns 1-6 mm; anthers 3-5 mm. 2n = 14, 28, 42.

Distribution

Wash., Del., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Ill., Mont., N.Y., Oreg., Wyo., Kans., N.Dak., Nebr., N.Mex., Okla., S.Dak., N.H., Tex., Conn., Nev., Alaska, Ind., Iowa, Mass., Utah, Minn., Mich., Alta., B.C., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), Man., N.S., N.W.T., Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon, Ky.

Discussion

Agropyron cristatum is native from central Europe and the eastern Mediterranean to Mongolia and China. According to Tsvelev (1976), the most widely distributed taxon outside the Soviet Union is A. cristatum subsp. pectinatum. Within the Flora region, the reticulate genetic history of crested wheatgrass and the absence of any native populations argue against attempting recognition of subspecies.

Among the more commonly encountered variants of Agropyron cristatum in the Flora region are the cultivar 'Fairway', which was considered by Dillman (1946) and Dewey (1986) to belong to A. cristatum rather than A. desertcrum, and its derivatives 'Parkway' and 'Ruff. The name "Fairway" is also widely used in agricultural circles to refer to any crested wheatgrass that looks like the cultivar 'Fairway'. "Standard" crested wheatgrass, which Dewey (1986) and others placed in A. desertorum, originally referred to a particular seed lot (S.P.I. 19537) that the Montana Wheatgrowers' Association decided to use as a standard against which to compare the performance of other crested wheatgrass strains. The term is now applied by agronomists to all crested wheatgrasses that are less leafy and have more lanceolate spikes than "Fairway" crested wheatgrasses. There are numerous cultivars of crested wheatgrass available.

Because it is easy to establish, Agropyron cristatum has often been used to restore productivity to areas that have been overgrazed, burned, or otherwise disturbed. This ability, combined with its high seed production, tends to prevent establishment of most other species, both native and introduced.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number."+timesaslongastheinternodes" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Agropyron cristatum"
42 +, 28 +  and 14 +
membranous +  and scarious +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Mary E. Barkworth +
(L.) Gaertn. +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
basal +  and apical +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
swelling +
not evident +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
cross +, linear +  and narrowly lanceolate +
1.5mm;6mm +
spikelike +
hairy +  and glabrous +
Crested wheatgrass +, Agropyron accrêté +  and Agropyron à crête +
not branching +
geniculate +
25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br /> (110 cm1,100 mm <br />1.1 m <br />) +
not woody +
Wash. +, Del. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Mont. +, N.Y. +, Oreg. +, Wyo. +, Kans. +, N.Dak. +, Nebr. +, N.Mex. +, Okla. +, S.Dak. +, N.H. +, Tex. +, Conn. +, Nev. +, Alaska +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Mass. +, Utah +, Minn. +, Mich. +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, Man. +, N.S. +, N.W.T. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +  and Ky. +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
3 +  and 6 +
laterally compressed +  and terete +
subtending +
with coarse hairs +  and glabrous +
unequal +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
uncinate +
solid +  and hollow +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (?) +
pilose +  and glabrous +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
with hairs +  and glabrous +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
stiffly membranous +  and coriaceous +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
lanceolate +
fleshy +  and membranous +
concealed +  and prominent +
2 +  and 1 +
hairy +  and glabrous +
well-developed +
slightly longer +
subequal +
dry +  and fleshy +
spikelike +
Introduced +
1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br /> (?) +  and 10.5 cm105 mm <br />0.105 m <br /> (?) +
tapering +, ovate +, rectangular +  and lanceolate +
subsessile +  and sessile +
bisexual +  and sterile +
terete +  and compressed +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
not papillate +
Agropyron pectiniforme +, Agropyron imbricatum +, Agropyron desertorum +, Agropyron cristatum subsp. pectinatum +  and Agropyron cristatum subsp. desertorum +
Agropyron cristatum +
Agropyron +
species +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +