Alnus rubra

Bongard

Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2: 162. 1833.

Common names: Red alder Oregon alder
EndemicIllustrated
Synonyms: Alnus oregona Nuttall Alnus rubra var. pinnatisecta Starker
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 3.

Trees, to 28 m; trunks often several, crowns narrow or pyramidal. Bark gray, smooth, darkening and breaking into shallow rectangular plates in age; lenticels inconspicuous. Winter buds stipitate, ellipsoid, 6–10 mm, apex rounded, long; stalks 2–8 mm; scales 2–3, outer 2 equal and valvate, usually heavily resin-coated. Leaf-blade ovate to elliptic, 6–16 × 3–11 cm, leathery, base broadly cuneate to rounded, margins strongly revolute, deeply doubly serrate or crenate, with distinctly larger secondary teeth, apex acute to obtuse; surfaces abaxially glabrous to sparsely pubescent. Inflorescences formed season before flowering and exposed during winter; staminate catkins in 1 or more clusters of 2–6, 3.5–14 cm; sistillate catkins in 1 or more clusters of 3–8. Flowering before new growth in spring. Infructescences ovoid to nearly globose, 1–3.5 × 0.6–1.5 cm; peduncles 1–10 mm. Samaras ovate or elliptic, wings much narrower than body, irregularly elliptic to obovate, leathery. 2n = 28.


Phenology: Flowering early spring.
Habitat: Stream banks, moist flood plains, lake shores, wet slopes, and sandy, open coasts
Elevation: 0–300 m

Distribution

V3 6-distribution-map.gif

B.C., Yukon, Alaska, Calif., Idaho, Oreg., Wash.

Discussion

Alnus rubra is the largest alder in North America north of Mexico; it often forms extensive stands along streams and on low-lying flood plains in the Pacific Northwest. The strongly revolute margins of its leaf blades make it easily distinguished from all of the other alders in the flora. It is an important commercial tree; the wood is used to make inexpensive furniture, small wooden items, and paper pulp.

Native Americans used various parts of plants of Alnus rubra medicinally as a purgative, an emetic, for aching bones, headaches, coughs, biliousness, stomach problems, scrofula sores, tuberculosis, asthma, and eczema, and as a general panacea (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"persistent" is not a number.

... more about "Alnus rubra"
Acute (?) +  and Obtuse (?) +
John J. Furlow +
Bongard +
tanniferous +  and furrowed +
darkening +  and gray +
exfoliating +
broadly cuneate +  and rounded +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
in relatively small racemose clusters +  and solitary +
solitary +, cluster +  and racemose +
erect +  and nearly pendulous +
proximal +  and lateral +
enclosed in buds +  and exposed +
ovoid +  and ellipsoid +
expanding +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
Red alder +  and Oregon alder +
pyramidal +
multibracteate +
B.C. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Calif. +, Idaho +, Oreg. +  and Wash. +
0–300 m +
pistillate +  and staminate +
reduced +  and small +
small +  and large +
Stream banks, moist flood plains, lake shores, wet slopes, and sandy, open coasts +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
ovoid +  and nearly globose +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
membranaceous +  and leathery +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (16 cm160 mm <br />0.16 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br />) +
3-ranked +  and nearly 2-ranked +
inconspicuous +
entire +, serrulate +  and serrate +
crenate +, serrate +  and revolute +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
not obvious +  and defined +
membranaceous +
Flowering early spring. +
2(-3)-carpellate +
shallow +
rectangular +
Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. +
1-seeded +  and 2-winged +
elliptic;ovate +
crowded +  and imbricate +
deciduous +  and persistent +
2 +  and 3 +
expanding +
thicker +  and thin +
W1 +, Endemic +  and Illustrated +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
nearly +  and distinct +
abaxially glabrous;sparsely pubescent +
Alnus oregona +  and Alnus rubra var. pinnatisecta +
Alnus rubra +
species +
excurrent +  and deliquescent +
differentiated +  and uniform +
irregularly elliptic +  and obovate +
leathery +
much narrower +
tanniferous +
light +  and white +