Anthoxanthum odoratum

L.
Common names: Sweet vernalgrass Flouve odorante Foin d'odeur
Introduced
Synonyms: Anthoxanthum odoratum subsp. alpinum
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 759.

Plants perennial. Culms (10) 25-60 (100) cm, erect, simple or sparingly branched. Auricles 0.5-1 mm, pilose-ciliate, sometimes absent; ligules 2-7 mm, truncate; blades 1-31 cm long, 3-10 mm wide. Panicles (3) 4-14 cm, the spikelets congested; lowermost branches 10-25 mm; pedicels 0.5-1 mm, pubescent. Spikelets 6-10 mm; lower glumes 3-4 mm; upper glumes 8-10 mm; sterile florets 3-4 mm, awn of the first floret 2-4 mm, awn of the second floret 4-9 mm, equaling or only slightly exceeding the upper glumes; bisexual florets 1-2.5 mm; anthers 2, (2.9) 3.5-4.8 (5.5) mm. 2n = 10,20.

Distribution

Conn., N.J., N.Y., Wash., B.C., Greenland, N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Labr.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Del., D.C., Wis., W.Va., Pacific Islands (Hawaii), Mass., Maine, N.H., R.I., Vt., N.Mex., Tex., La., Tenn., N.C., S.C., Pa., Calif., Va., Colo., Alaska, Ala., Ark., Ill., Ga., Ind., Idaho, Md., Ohio, Mo., Mich., Miss., Oreg., Ky.

Discussion

Anthoxanthum odoratum is native to southern Europe. In the Flora region, it grows in meadows, pastures, grassy beaches, old hay fields, waste places, and openings in coniferous forests, occasionally in dense shade or as a weed in lawns. It is most abundant on the western and eastern sides of the continent, and is almost absent from the central region. In southern British Columbia, it is rapidly invading the moss-covered bedrock of coastal bluffs, and will soon exclude many native species. Diploids (In = 10) have been referred to A. odoratum subsp. alpinum (Á. Löve & D. Love) Hulten. Because the two ploidy levels can be distinguished only through cytological examination (Hedberg 1990), the two subspecies are not recognized here.

Anthoxanthum odoratum was often included in hay and pasture mixes to give fragrance to the hay, but this practice is waning. The aroma is released upon wilting or drying. By itself, the species is unpalatable because of the bitter-tasting coumarin.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number.

... more about "Anthoxanthum odoratum"
membranous +  and scarious +
2.9 cm29 mm <br />0.029 m <br /> (?) +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.48 cm4.8 mm <br />0.0048 m <br />) +
awned +  and bilobed +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
Kelly W. Allied +  and Mary E. Barkworth +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
straight +
basal +  and terminal +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
only slightly exceeding the upper glumes +  and equaling +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
swelling +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (31 cm310 mm <br />0.31 m <br />) +
not evident +
pilose +  and glabrous +
rolled +  and flat +
3mm;10mm +
spikelike +
hairy +  and glabrous +
Sweet vernalgrass +, Flouve odorante +  and Foin d'odeur +
branched +  and simple +
geniculate +
25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br /> (60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br />) +
not woody +
Conn. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Wash. +, B.C. +, Greenland +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Labr.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Wis. +, W.Va. +, Pacific Islands (Hawaii) +, Mass. +, Maine +, N.H. +, R.I. +, Vt. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, La. +, Tenn. +, N.C. +, S.C. +, Pa. +, Calif. +, Va. +, Colo. +, Alaska +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Ill. +, Ga. +, Ind. +, Idaho +, Md. +, Ohio +, Mo. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, Oreg. +  and Ky. +
1/4 +  and 1/3 +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
sometimes longer +
bisexual +  and sterile +
compressed +
reduced +
1mm +  and 2.5mm +
shorter or longer +
subtending +
pilose +  and glabrous +
keeled +, lanceolate +  and ovate +
subequal +  and unequal +
exceeding the florets +  and equaling +
uncinate +
0 +  and 1/3 +
hairy +  and glabrous +
3-7-veined +  and 3-veined +
pubescent +, glabrous +  and strigose +
compressed +
subequal +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
lanceolate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
concealed +  and prominent +
2 +  and 1 +
hairy +  and glabrous +
well-developed +
2-keeled +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (?) +
spikelike +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
dry +  and fleshy +
not prolonged +
Introduced +
sessile +  and pedicellate +
stramineous +  and brown +
compressed +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
Anthoxanthum odoratum subsp. alpinum +
Anthoxanthum odoratum +
Anthoxanthum +
species +
membranous +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
parallel +  and converging +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +