Arabidopsis thaliana

(Linnaeus) Heynhold in F. Holl and G. Heynhold

in F. Holl and G. Heynhold, Fl. Sachsen 1: 538. 1842.

Common names: Thale cress
WeedyIntroduced
Basionym: Arabis thaliana Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 665. 1753
Synonyms: Sisymbrium thalianum (Linnaeus) J. Gay & Monnard
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 450. Mentioned on page 226, 448.

Annuals; glabrous or pubescent, trichomes usually simple, sometimes mixed with stalked, forked ones. Stems simple or few from base, erect, unbranched or branched distally, (0.2–) 0.5–3 (–5) dm, pubescent basally, trichomes predominantly simple, glabrous apically. Basal leaves shortly petiolate; blades obovate, spatulate, ovate, or elliptic, 0.8–3.5 (–4.5) cm × (1–) 2–10 (–15) mm, margins entire, repand, or dentate, apex obtuse, adaxial surface with predominantly simple and stalked, 1-forked trichomes. Cauline leaves subsessile; blade lanceolate, linear, oblong, or elliptic, (0.4–) 0.6–1.8 (–2.5) cm × 1–6 (–10) mm, margins usually entire, rarely toothed. Fruiting pedicels divaricate, 3–10 (–15) mm. Flowers: sepals 1–2 (–2.5) mm, lateral pair not saccate basally, (glabrous or sparsely pubescent distally, trichomes simple); petals white, spatulate, 2–3.5 (–4) × 0.5–1.5 mm, (base attenuate to claw); filaments 1.5–2 mm. Fruits cylindric or linear, smooth, terete, (0.8–) 1–1.5 (–1.8) cm × 0.5–0.8 mm; valves each with distinct midvein; ovules 40–70 per ovary; style to 0.5 mm. Seeds light-brown, (plump), ellipsoid 0.3–0.5 mm; cotyledons incumbent. 2n = 10.


Phenology: Flowering Feb–May.
Habitat: Sandy areas along roadsides, stream banks, railroad tracks and embankments, open pastures, grassy flats, fields, prairies, floodplains, woods, lawns, limestone ledges and crevices, bluffs, shale and serpentine barrens, gravel, sandstone
Elevation: 0-1000 m

Distribution

V7 685-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; B.C., Ont., Que., Ala., Ark., Calif., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., Mont., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Europe, sw, c Asia, also nearly worldwide

Discussion

Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely used model organism in plant biology. Its small genome size, fully sequenced in the year 2000, chromosome number, fast growth cycle (from seed germination to set in four to six weeks), small size (hundreds can be grown in a pot and thousands in a growth chamber), autogamous breeding system (induced mutations are expressed in two generations), and ability to grow on various synthetic media, all make the species an ideal system in experimental biology.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"elongated" is not a number."thick" is not a number."dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Arabidopsis thaliana"
ovate +  and oblong +
Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz +
(Linnaeus) Heynhold in F. Holl and G. Heynhold +
Arabis thaliana +
appendaged +  and unappendaged +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
lyrate +, lobed +, toothed +  and entire +
elliptic;oblong;elliptic;oblong;linear;lanceolate;elliptic;ovate;elliptic;ovate;spatulate;obovate +
much smaller +  and reduced +
1mm;6mm +
urceolate +, campanulate +  and tubular +
branched +  and simple +
well-developed +
distinct +
differentiated +
Thale cress +
emarginate +  and entire +
B.C. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Europe +, sw +, c Asia +  and also nearly worldwide +
0-1000 m +
straight +  and curved +
not winged +  and unappendaged +
connate +  and distinct +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
actinomorphic +
2-valved +  and capsular +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
1cm;1.5cm +
terete +, linear +  and cylindric +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br />) +
latiseptate +  and unsegmented +
indehiscent +  and dehiscent +
angustiseptate +  and terete +
latiseptate +, subsessile +  and stipitate +
terete +  and torulose +
Sandy areas along roadsides, stream banks, railroad tracks and embankments, open pastures, grassy flats, fields, prairies, floodplains, woods, lawns, limestone ledges and crevices, bluffs, shale and serpentine barrens, gravel, sandstone +
subsessile +, sessile +  and petiolate +
alternate +, not +  and rosulate +
cauline +  and basal +
connate +  and distinct +
decurrent +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
toothed;dentate;repand;dentate;repand;entire +
obscure +  and prominent +
forked +
tenuinucellate +, crassinucellate +  and bitegmic +
campylotropous +  and anatropous +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
rudimentary +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
Flowering Feb–May. +
trinucleate +  and 3(-11)-colpate +
in F. Holl and G. Heynhold, Fl. Sachsen +
not elongated +
reflexed +  and ascending +
slender +
not +  and mucilaginous +
margined +  and not winged +
uniseriate +  and biseriate +
not +  and mucilaginous +
ellipsoid +
0.3mm +  and 0.5mm +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
persistent +  and caducous +
distinct +
ascending +  and erect +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
reduced +
latiseptate +, schizocarpic +, samaroid +  and lomentaceous +
indehiscent +  and dehiscent +
angustiseptate +, flat +, angled +, terete +, torulose +, not +, segmented +  and nutletlike +
Weedy +  and Introduced +
tetradynamous +
branched +, unbranched +  and simple +
procumbent +  and decumbent +
2-lobed +, entire +, conical +  and capitate +
subsessile +, sessile +  and petiolate +
persistent +
distinct +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
Sisymbrium thalianum +
Arabidopsis thaliana +
Arabidopsis +
species +
stalked +  and simple +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
anastomosing +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
rhizomatous +, taprooted +, scapose +  and not +
perennial +, biennial +  and annual +
subshrub +  and herb +
aquatics +  and terrestrial +
glabrous +  and pubescent +