Armoracia rusticana

P. Gaertner

Oekon. Fl. Wetterau 2: 426. 1800.

WeedyIntroducedIllustrated
Synonyms: Cochlearia armoracia Linnaeus Rorippa armoracia (Linnaeus) A. S. Hitchcock
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 459. Mentioned on page 460, 555.

Roots fusiform or cylindrical, fleshy or woody. Stems 5–12 (–20) dm. Basal leaves: petiole to 60 cm (broadly expanded basally); blade broadly oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or ovate, (10–) 20–45 (–60) cm × (30–) 50–120 (–170) mm, margins usually coarsely crenate, rarely pinnatifid. Cauline leaves: proximal shortly petiolate, blade oblong to linear-oblong (lobed), smaller than basal, margins pinnatifid or pinnatisect; distal sessile or shortly petiolate, blade linear to linear-lanceolate, base cuneate or attenuate, margins usually serrate or crenate, rarely entire. Racemes to 40 cm. Fruiting pedicels ascending, 8–20 mm. Flowers: sepals 2–4 mm; petals obovate or oblanceolate, 5–7 (–8) mm, claw to 1.5 mm; filaments 1–2.5 mm; anthers 0.5–0.8 mm. Fruits (rarely produced), 4–6 mm; style obsolete or to 0.5 mm; stigma well-developed. Seeds compressed (often not produced, rarely to 4 per locule). 2n = 32.


Phenology: Flowering Mar–Jul.
Habitat: Fields, moist stream banks, roadsides, ditches, disturbed sites, open woods, along railroads, shallow ponds, marshes, waste places
Elevation: 0-1100 m

Distribution

V7 703-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; B.C., Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Calif., Colo., Conn., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Tenn., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., Europe, Asia, also nearly worldwide

Discussion

Armoracia rusticana has been widely cultivated for about 2000 years for its fleshy roots that are grated to produce the pungent horseradish sauce. The plant is also a noxious weed that is very difficult to eradicate, even tiny root fragments are capable of regenerating new plants.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"elongated" is not a number."thick" is not a number."dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Armoracia rusticana"
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br />) +
Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz +
P. Gaertner +
attenuate +  and cuneate +
appendaged +  and unappendaged +
45 cm450 mm <br />0.45 m <br /> (60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br />) +
12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br /> (17 cm170 mm <br />0.17 m <br />) +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (45 cm450 mm <br />0.45 m <br />) +
pinnatisect +  and serrate +
pinnatifid +  and crenate +
linear;linear-lanceolate +
smaller +
50mm;120mm +
urceolate +, campanulate +  and tubular +
branched +  and simple +
sessile +  and petiolate +
well-developed +
distinct +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
differentiated +
emarginate +  and entire +
petiolate +  and sessile +
B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Maine +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +, Europe +, Asia +  and also nearly worldwide +
0-1100 m +
straight +  and curved +
not winged +  and unappendaged +
connate +  and distinct +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
actinomorphic +
angustiseptate +, orbicular +, elliptic +, ovate +  and oblong +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
Fields, moist stream banks, roadsides, ditches, disturbed sites, open woods, along railroads, shallow ponds, marshes, waste places +
sessile +  and petiolate +
alternate +, not +  and rosulate +
cauline +  and basal +
connate +  and distinct +
decurrent +
crenate;serrate;pinnatisect;pinnatifid;pinnatifid;crenate +
tenuinucellate +, crassinucellate +  and bitegmic +
campylotropous +  and anatropous +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
rudimentary +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br />) +
Flowering Mar–Jul. +
trinucleate +  and 3(-11)-colpate +
Oekon. Fl. Wetterau +
elongated +
slender +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
cylindrical +  and fusiform +
woody +  and fleshy +
mucilaginous +
not +  and mucilaginous +
White (?) +, Black (?) +, Brown (?) +  and Yellow (?) +
compressed +
persistent +  and caducous +
distinct +
ascending +  and spreading +
oblong +  and ovate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
reduced +
latiseptate +  and unsegmented +
angustiseptate +, 4-angled +  and terete +
latiseptate +  and unsegmented +
angustiseptate +, 4-angled +  and terete +
Weedy +, Introduced +  and Illustrated +
tetradynamous +
procumbent +  and decumbent +
well-developed +
2-lobed +, entire +, conical +  and capitate +
subsessile +, sessile +  and petiolate +
persistent +
distinct +
0-0.5 mm +  and obsolete +
Cochlearia armoracia +  and Rorippa armoracia +
Armoracia rusticana +
Armoracia +
species +
scale-like +  and forked +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
anastomosing +
rhizomatous +, taprooted +, scapose +  and not +
perennial +, biennial +  and annual +
subshrub +  and herb +
aquatics +  and terrestrial +
glabrous +  and pubescent +