Arundinaria gigantea

(Walter) Muhl.
Common names: River cane Giant cane
Endemic
Synonyms: Arundinaria tecta var. distachya Arundinaria macrosperma Arundinaria gigantea subsp. macrosperma
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 18.

Rhizomes normally remaining horizontal, sometimes hollow-centered, air canals absent. Culms 2-8 m tall, to 3 cm thick; internodes typically sulcate distal to the branches. Culm leaves deciduous; sheaths 9-15 cm; fimbriae 2.2-7 mm; blades 1.5-3.5 cm. Topknots of 6-8 leaves; blades 16-24 cm long, 2-3.2 cm wide, lanceolate to ovatelanceolate. Primary branches to 25 cm, erect or nearly so, with 0-1 compressed basal internodes, lower elongated internodes flattened in cross-section. Foliage leaves: abaxial ligules usually ciliate, sometimes glabrous; blades subcoriaceous, persistent, evergreen, 8-15 cm long, 0.8-1.3 cm wide, bases rounded, abaxial surfaces glabrous or pubescent, strongly cross veined, adaxial surfaces glabrous or almost so. Spikelets 4-7 cm, greenish or brownish, with 8-12 florets. Glumes unequal, glabrous or pubescent, lowest glumes obtuse to acuminate or absent; lemmas 1.2-2 cm, usually appressed-hirsute to canescent, sometimes pubescent only towards the base and margins. Caryopses oblong, beaked, without a style-branch below the beaks. 2n = 48.

Distribution

Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., La., Mo., Miss., N.C., Ohio, Okla., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Del., N.J., N.Y., Md.

Discussion

Arundinaria gigantea forms extensive colonies in low woods, moist ground, and along river banks. It was once widespread in the southeastern United States, but cultivation, burning, and overgrazing have destroyed many stands.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number."elongated" is not a number.

... more about "Arundinaria gigantea"
pubescent +  and glabrous +
almost +  and glabrous +
Lynn G. Clark +  and J.K. Triplett +
(Walter) Muhl. +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (?) +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +
divergent +  and parallel +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
rounded +
swelling +
narrower +
crowded +  and cluster +
evergreen +  and persistent +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
distinctive +
lanceolate +  and ovatelanceolate +
smaller +  and expanded +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
0.8cm;1.3cm +
spikelike +
River cane +  and Giant cane +
branching +, complex +, solid +  and hollow +
perennial +
200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br /> (800 cm8,000 mm <br />8 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
Ala. +, Ark. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Mo. +, Miss. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Del. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +  and Md. +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
8 +  and 12 +
round +  and compressed +
subtending +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
1 +  and 2 +
unequal +
uncinate +
ebracteate +  and bracteate +
racemose +  and paniculate +
branching +  and complex +
pubescent +, usually appressed-hirsute +  and canescent +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
inconspicuous +
simple +  and complex +
concealed +  and prominent +
not swollen +
2 +  and 1 +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
2-keeled +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
persistent +  and deciduous +
9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
brownish +  and greenish +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
1 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
triangular +  and dome--shaped +
Arundinaria tecta var. distachya +, Arundinaria macrosperma +  and Arundinaria gigantea subsp. macrosperma +
Arundinaria gigantea +
Arundinaria +
species +
membranous +
plant +  and subarborescent +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +