Atrichum undulatum

(Hedwig) P. Beauvois

Prodr. Aethéogam., 42. 1805,.

Basionym: Polytrichum undulatum Hedwig Sp. Musc. Frond., 98. 1801
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 154. Mentioned on page 24, 25, 38, 131, 148, 149, 151, 152, 155.

Plants small to fairly large, dark green. Stems 2–5 cm. Leaves sparse below, more crowded above, 4–9 × 0.8–1.5 mm, lingulate to lanceolate, undulate, keeled distally, concave to flat proximally, with oblique rows of abaxial teeth on undulations, the apex acute; costa percurrent, with teeth on abaxial surface in distal half; lamellae 2–6, 2–4 (–7) cells high; median leaf cells 20–32 µm wide, irregularly angled to hexagonal, sometimes rounded, often transversely elongate, convex on both surfaces, smooth or with minute, verrucose or striate papillae on abaxial surface, walls firm, strongly collenchymatous with trigones. Sexual condition polygamous, some shoots bisexual, others apparently male or female; perigonial bracts broad, forming antheridial buds, often several buds per plant. Seta 1 (–3) per perichaetium, 1–3 cm, reddish-brown. Capsule 2–4 (–8) × 0.5–1 mm, curved to distinctly arcuate, almost horizontal; operculum 2–3 mm. Spores (12–) 16–28 µm.


Phenology: Capsules mature spring–summer (Apr- Jul).
Habitat: Soil, dry weedy habitats, especially roadside ditches
Elevation: usually low elevations

Distribution

V27 191-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Maine, Europe, w, c Asia, n Africa

Discussion

No Atrichum species occurring in North America has been as widely misunderstood as A. undulatum. Evidently introduced from Europe, its weedy habitat and strongly arcuate, almost horizontal capsules are the surest means of recognition. Variety minus, a fixture of European manuals, is a stunted form that is highly variable and possibly a hybrid. Its occurrence in North America has not been demonstrated. As used by American authors (e.g., O. E. Jennings 1951), it probably refers to A. altecristatum.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"narrower" is not a number.

... more about "Atrichum undulatum"
prominent +
Gary L. Smith Merrill +  and Robert R. Ireland Jr. +
(Hedwig) P. Beauvois +
Polytrichum undulatum +
straight;arcuate +
abrupt +, crisped +  and undulate +
broadened +
overlapping +
not pitted +
monoicous +, dioicous +, sexual +  and vegetative +
sparsely ciliate;smooth +
hispid +  and smooth +
cucullate +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
curved +  and distinctly arcuate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
terete +  and long-cylindric +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
toothed +
undifferentiated +
conspicuous +
B.C. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Maine +, Europe +, w +, c Asia +  and n Africa +
usually low elevations +
scabrous +, mammillose +  and smooth +
Soil, dry weedy habitats, especially roadside ditches +
delimited +  and indistinct +
photosynthetic +
2 +  and 4 +
serrate +, crenulate +  and serrulate +
long-rectangular +
toothed +  and undulate +
striate +  and verrucose +
4mm;9mm +
lingulate +  and lanceolate undulate keeled distally +
membranous +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
1(-3)-stratose +
cuticular-papillose +  and smooth +
toothed +, serrate +, denticulate +  and entire +
shape +  and size +
with minute rounded to striate papillae +  and smooth +
synoicous +, polygamous +, dioicous +  and sexual +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (?) +
female +  and male +
usually narrower and longer +
pigmented +  and pale +
Capsules mature spring–summer (Apr- Jul). +
Prodr. Aethéogam., +
underground +
not differentiated +
reddish-brown +
straight +  and flexuose +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
differentiated +
larger +  and minute +
branched +  and simple +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
Atrichum undulatum +
Atrichum +
species +
compound +  and simple +
unjointed +
collenchymatous +
small +  and fairly large +