Baccharis halimifolia

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 860. 1753.

Common names: Sea-myrtle consumption-weed eastern baccharis
Illustrated
Synonyms: Baccharis halimifolia var. angustior de Candolle
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 28. Mentioned on page 24, 25, 26.

Shrubs or trees, 100–300 (–600) cm (freely branched). Stems erect to ascending, slender, striate-angled, glabrous or minutely scurfy, sometimes resinous. Leaves present at flowering; short-petiolate or sessile; blades elliptic to broadly obovate or rhombic, main cauline rhombic, 30–50 (–80) × 10–40 (–60) mm (thick and firm), bases cuneate, margins entire proximally, usually coarsely serrate distal to middles (teeth 1–3 pairs), faces glabrous, gland-dotted, resinous (distal reduced, entire). Heads 3–4 in loose pedunculate clusters in (terminal, leafy-bracted) broad paniculiform arrays. Involucres campanulate; staminate 3–5 mm, pistillate 3–5 mm. Phyllaries ovate to lanceolate, 1–4 mm, margins scarious, medians green, apices obtuse to acute. Staminate florets 25–30; corollas 3–4 mm. Pistillate florets 20–30; corollas 2.5–3.5 mm. Cypselae 1–1.8 mm, 8–10-nerved, glabrous; pappi 8–12 mm. 2n = 18.


Phenology: Flowering Aug–Nov.
Habitat: Open sandy places, wet fields, marshes, beaches, disturbed sites, roadsides, old fields
Elevation: 0–100 m

Distribution

V20-15-distribution-map.gif

N.S., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., La., Md., Mass., Miss., N.J., N.Y., Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tex., Va., Mexico (Nuevo León), Mexico (San Luis Potosí), Mexico (Tamaulipas), Mexico (Veracruz), West Indies, in Europe (France), Australia

Discussion

Native to the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, Baccharis halimifolia is recognized by its broad, distinctly rhombic, coarsely serrate basal leaves, pyramidal, leafy arrays, and cypselae with large fluffy pappi. The plants are often to 600 cm; the basal leaves might be missed by collectors. Forms with relatively narrow leaves are especially common in Arkansas, Louisiana, and east Texas. These may be the result of hybridization and introgression with B. neglecta, in areas where they are known to hybridize (D. J. Zanowiak 1991), or with B. angustifolia. Hybrids between B. halimifolia and B. angustifolia are known from Florida as well. Baccharis halimifolia has been introduced to Australia and France. In Australia it infests large areas along the coast of southern Queensland and New South Wales. Its success as an invasive weed is attributed to production of a large number of seeds that are widely dispersed by the wind, shade tolerant germination and seedlings, tolerance to wet soils and salinity, and ability to resprout after a fire (W. E. Westman et al. 1975). The leaves of B. halimifolia contain a cardiotoxic glycoside known to cause the death of sheep if they eat about one percent of their body weight in leaves.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Baccharis halimifolia"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
paniculiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
Scott D. Sundberg† +  and David J. Bogler +
Linnaeus +
cuneate +
3-nerved +  and 1-nerved +
elliptic;broadly obovate or rhombic +
rugulose +  and muricate +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
Sea-myrtle +, consumption-weed +  and eastern baccharis +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
whitish +, white +  and pale-yellow +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
compressed +, obovoid +  and cylindric +
fertile +  and bisexual +
N.S. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, La. +, Md. +, Mass. +, Miss. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tex. +, Va. +, Mexico (Nuevo León) +, Mexico (San Luis Potosí) +, Mexico (Tamaulipas) +, Mexico (Veracruz) +, West Indies +, in Europe (France) +  and Australia +
0–100 m +
resinous +
gland-dotted +
pistillate +  and staminate +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Open sandy places, wet fields, marshes, beaches, disturbed sites, roadsides, old fields +
racemiform +, corymbiform +  and paniculiform +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
each +  and sessile +
pistillate +  and staminate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
campanulate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
sessile +  and short-petiolate +
spreading-reflexed;spreading-reflexed +
less deltate +  and lanceovate +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
serrate +  and entire +
hispid +  and glabrous +
2-carpellate +
brownish +, whitish +  and tawny +
persistent +
25 +  and 50 +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
Flowering Aug–Nov. +
ovate +  and lanceolate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
styliferous +, neuter +  and pistillate +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
conic;tholiform;conic;tholiform;flat +
exalbuminous +
Illustrated +
1 (?) +  and 20 (?) +
resinous +
erect +  and ascending +
striate-angled +
slender +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Baccharis halimifolia var. angustior +
Baccharis halimifolia +
Baccharis +
species +
tree +  and shrub +