Baileya multiradiata

Harvey & A. Gray

Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, n. s. 4: 106. 1849.

Common names: Desert marigold
Illustrated
Synonyms: Baileya australis Rydberg Baileya multiradiata var. nudicaulis A. Gray Baileya pleniradiata var. multiradiata (Harvey & A. Gray) Kearney Baileya thurberi
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 21. Treatment on page 446. Mentioned on page 447.

Plants mostly 20–100 cm. Leaves: basal (rosette) leaves mostly 3–10 × 1–5 cm; petioles 1–4 cm; blades ovate, usually pedately to pinnately lobed (cauline leaves in vernal forms much reduced; autumnal forms often leafy throughout and cauline leaves not much reduced). Heads borne singly. Peduncles 10–30 cm (vernal forms, often shorter on autumnal forms). Involucres hemispheric (vernal forms), mostly 5–10 × 10–25 mm. Phyllaries mostly 21–34, floccose-tomentose. Rays (vernal forms) mostly 34–55; laminae linear-oblanceolate, mostly 10–20 × 5 mm, apices moderately to deeply 3-toothed. Disc-florets (vernal forms) 100+; corollas 4 mm, tubes 1 mm, lobes 0.25 mm; style-branch apices truncate to slightly rounded. Cypselae 4 mm. 2n = 32.


Phenology: Flowering Mar–Nov (depending on rains).
Habitat: Stony slopes, mesas, and sandy plains
Elevation: 100–2000 m

Distribution

V21-1117-distribution-map.gif

Ariz., Calif., Nev., N.Mex., Tex., Utah, Mexico (Aguascalientes), Mexico (Chihuahua), Mexico (Coahuila), Mexico (Durango), Mexico (Sonora)

Discussion

Baileya multiradiata is an attractive and bountiful wild flower over a large part of the desert Southwest. It has been touted as a promising plant for landscaping, and research on its nursery production has begun (D. J. Cotter et al. 1980, 1982).

Both Baileya multiradiata and B. pleniradiata produce an antineoplastic pseudoguaianolide, radiatin, which might prove useful in cancer therapy (J. J. Einck et al. 1978). In addition, the antibiotic sesquiterpene lactone, baileyolin, from B. multiradiata inhibits tumor formation (X. A. Dominguez et al. 1977).

Baileya multiradiata is reportedly toxic to livestock, especially to sheep and goats, where losses as high as 25% have been reported on overgrazed rangeland in Texas (D. W. Hill et al. 1979, 1980). Cattle and horses seem to be unaffected, or at least poisoning of these animals has gone unreported. The chemical agent responsible is believed to be hymenoxon, a sesquiterpene lactone originally found in the genus Hymenoxys, where it is also toxic.

The poorly known desert marigold moth, Schinia minima (Grote), appears to be endemic on Baileya multiradiata, using the heads of this species for its larval development (T. G. Myles and B. F. Binder 1990).

The autumnal blossoms of Baileya multiradiata, with smaller heads, fewer rays, and shorter peduncles, greatly resemble those of B. pleniradiata. This has caused much confusion in the distinction between these two species. The shape of the style apex is a useful character to distinguish between fall-blooming specimens.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Baileya multiradiata"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
connate +  and distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually ovate +  and lanceolate +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
M. W. Turner +
Harvey & A. Gray +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
decurrent +
compound +  and simple +
lobed;ovate +
winged;ribbed;winged;ribbed +
tuberculate +  and rugose +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
Desert marigold +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (?) +
glandular-pubescent +
obpyramidal +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Ariz. +, Calif. +, Nev. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Mexico (Aguascalientes) +, Mexico (Chihuahua) +, Mexico (Coahuila) +, Mexico (Durango) +  and Mexico (Sonora) +
100–2000 m +
floccose-woolly +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Stony slopes, mesas, and sandy plains +
discoid +  and radiate +
indeterminate +
homogamous +  and heterogamous +
each +  and sessile +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
hemispheric +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
10mm;20mm +
linear-oblanceolate +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +  and basal +
deltate +
dentate to pinnatifid or palmatifid +  and entire +
connate +  and distinct +
ovate +, oblong +, oblanceolate +, linear +, lanceolate +  and elliptic +
unequal +  and subequal +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
Flowering Mar–Nov (depending on rains). +
floccose-tomentose +
21 +  and 34 +
Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, n. s. +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
flat;convex +
of 35 +  and 150 bristles +
exalbuminous +
Illustrated +
appendaged +  and truncate +
hirsutulous +  and glabrous +
papillate +
Baileya australis +, Baileya multiradiata var. nudicaulis +, Baileya pleniradiata var. multiradiata +  and Baileya thurberi +
Baileya multiradiata +
species +
urceolate +  and campanulate +
dilated +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
toothed +  and entire +
perennial +, biennial +  and annual +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +