Barbarea verna

(Miller) Ascherson

Fl. Brandenb. 1: 36. 1860.

Common names: Early winter or Belle Isle or American or land cress scurvygrass
Introduced
Basionym: Erysimum vernum Miller Gard. Dict. ed. 8, Erysimum no. 3. 1768
Synonyms: Barbarea praecox (Smith) R. Brown Campe verna (Miller) A. Heller Erysimum praecox Smith
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 463. Mentioned on page 460, 461.

Biennials or, rarely, perennials; mostly glabrous, except blade auricles ciliate. Stems (1–) 2.5–8 dm. Basal leaves: petiole (0.5–) 1–6 (–8) cm; blade pinnatifid to pinnatisect, 1.5–11 cm, lobes (3–) 6–10 on each side, lateral lobes oblong or ovate, 0.4–3 cm × 1–10 mm, not fleshy, margins entire, terminal lobe considerably larger than lateral ones, 1–5 cm × 10–350 mm. Cauline leaves: blade pinnatisect, lateral lobes 1–4, (oblong to lanceolate), margins often entire, rarely coarsely toothed; conspicuously auriculate, auricles ovate or narrowly oblong, (to 10 × 4 mm, margins entire). Fruiting pedicels divaricate to ascending, (2–) 3–6 (–7) mm, terete, stout (almost as broad as fruit). Flowers: sepals 3–5 × 0.7–1.5 mm, lateral pair slightly saccate basally, margins scarious; petals yellow or pale-yellow, oblanceolate to spatulate, (5–) 6–7 (–8.5) × 1.5–3 mm, base cuneate, apex truncate or emarginate; filaments 3–5 mm; anthers 0.8–1.2 mm; ovules (34–) 38–48 (–52) per ovary; gynophore to 0.3 mm. Fruits erect to ascending, not appressed to rachis, torulose, subterete to slightly latiseptate, (4.5–) 5.3–7 (–8) cm × 1.5–2 mm; style stout, 0.2–1 (–2) mm. Seeds dark-brown, somewhat plump, oblong or quadrate, 1.8–2.5 × 1.4–1.6 mm. 2n = 16.


Phenology: Flowering Mar–Jul.
Habitat: Waste grounds, fields, limestone glades, rocky outcrops, fields, railroad embankments, disturbed sites, roadsides
Elevation: 0-1600 m

Distribution

V7 708-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; B.C., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), Ala., Alaska, Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Va., Wash., W.Va., Europe, Asia, n, s Africa, also in Mexico, South America (Argentina), South America (Brazil), South America (Chile), Australia

Discussion

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"elongated" is not a number."thick" is not a number."dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Barbarea verna"
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br />) +
emarginate +  and truncate +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
terete +, oblong +  and ovate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz +
(Miller) Ascherson +
not +  and rosulate +
cuneate +
Erysimum vernum +
appendaged +  and unappendaged +
lobed +, dentate +, repand +, crenate +  and entire +
pinnatifid;pinnatisect +
much smaller +  and reduced +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br />) +
urceolate +, campanulate +  and tubular +
branched +  and simple +
well-developed +
distinct +
differentiated +
Early winter or Belle Isle or American or land cress +  and scurvygrass +
emarginate +  and entire +
B.C. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, Ala. +, Alaska +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Europe +, Asia +, n +, s Africa +, also in Mexico +, South America (Argentina) +, South America (Brazil) +, South America (Chile) +  and Australia +
0-1600 m +
straight +  and curved +
not winged +  and unappendaged +
connate +  and distinct +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
actinomorphic +
not basally +  and saccate +
Dilated (?) +  and Oblong (?) +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
5.3cm;7cm +
erect +  and ascending +
subterete +  and torulose +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
latiseptate +, stipitate +  and sessile +
4-angled +, terete +  and torulose +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br />) +
Waste grounds, fields, limestone glades, rocky outcrops, fields, railroad embankments, disturbed sites, roadsides +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
sessile +  and petiolate +
alternate +, not +  and rosulate +
cauline +  and basal +
connate +  and distinct +
decurrent +
median +  and lateral +
toothlike +  and annular +
tenuinucellate +, crassinucellate +  and bitegmic +
campylotropous +  and anatropous +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (0.85 cm8.5 mm <br />0.0085 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
rudimentary +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
Flowering Mar–Jul. +
trinucleate +  and 3(-11)-colpate +
Fl. Brandenb. +
elongated +
stout +  and slender +
mucilaginous +
uniseriate +  and biseriate +
not +  and mucilaginous +
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
quadrate +  and oblong +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br />) +
persistent +  and caducous +
distinct +
erect +  and spreading or ascending +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
reduced +
latiseptate +  and unsegmented +
angustiseptate +, 4-angled +  and terete +
latiseptate +  and unsegmented +
angustiseptate +, 4-angled +  and terete +
Introduced +
tetradynamous +
procumbent +  and decumbent +
2-lobed +, entire +, conical +  and capitate +
subsessile +, sessile +  and petiolate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
persistent +
distinct +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
Barbarea praecox +, Campe verna +  and Erysimum praecox +
Barbarea verna +
Barbarea +
species +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
considerably larger +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (35 cm350 mm <br />0.35 m <br />) +
scale-like +  and forked +
coiled +, 1-7-veined +  and veined +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
anastomosing +
perennial +  and biennial +
rhizomatous +, taprooted +, scapose +  and not +
perennial +, biennial +  and annual +
subshrub +  and herb +
aquatics +  and terrestrial +
glabrous +  and pubescent +