Barbarea vulgaris

W. T. Aiton in W. Aiton and W. T. Aiton

in W. Aiton and W. T. Aiton, Hortus Kew. 4: 109. 1812.

Common names: Cress yellow-rocket cressy-greens
WeedyIntroduced
Basionym: Erysimum barbarea Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 660. 1753
Synonyms: Barbarea arcuata (Opiz ex C. Presl) Reichenbach Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata (Opiz ex C. Presl) Fries Erysimum arcuatum
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 461. Mentioned on page 460, 462.

Biennials or, rarely, perennials; glabrous throughout or margins ciliate. Stems (1.5–) 2–9 (–12) dm. Basal leaves: petiole (0.5–) 2–10 (–17) cm; blade lyrate-pinnatifid, (1–) 2–8 (–10) cm, lobes 1–3 (–5) on each side (rarely early ones undivided), lateral lobes oblong or ovate, 0.3–2 (–4) cm × 1–8 (–15) mm, sometimes slightly fleshy, margins entire, repand, crenate, or dentate, terminal lobe (ovate or suborbicular), (0.7–) 1.5–4.5 (–7) cm × (4–) 10–30 (–50) mm, (surfaces glabrous or margins ciliate). Cauline leaves: blade ovate or suborbicular (undivided), margins usually coarsely dentate, rarely subentire; conspicuously auriculate, auricles ovate or narrowly oblong (to 10 × 5 mm), glabrous. Fruiting pedicels divaricate to ascending or erect, 3–7 mm, terete or subquadrangular, thickened (narrower than fruit). Flowers: sepals 3–4.5 (–5) × 1–1.5 mm, lateral pair slightly saccate basally, margins scarious; petals yellow, spatulate or oblanceolate, (5–) 6–9 (–10) × 1.5–2.5 (–3.5) mm, base attenuate, apex rounded; filaments 3–4.5 mm; anthers 0.7–1.2 mm; ovules 18–24 (–28) per ovary; gynophore to 0.5 mm. Fruits erect to erect-ascending, rarely appressed to rachis, torulose, terete, somewhat compressed, or 4-angled, (0.7–) 1.5–3 cm × 1.2–2 mm; style slender, (1–) 1.5–3 (–3.5) mm. Seeds dark-brown, plump, broadly ovoid to oblong or subglobose, 1.2–1.5 × 1–1.2 mm. 2n = 16.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Jul.
Habitat: Waste places, ditches, riverbanks, damp grasslands, roadsides, fields, disturbed sites
Elevation: 0-3000 m

Distribution

V7 705-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Ala., Alaska, Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Tenn., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., Europe, Asia, n Africa

Discussion

Barbarea vulgaris, which is sometimes grown as a potherb, is highly variable in length and orientation of fruit and fruiting pedicel, style length, and the division of cauline leaves. Several varieties have been recognized, and they represent some of the many points along one continuum. In my opinion, it is better not to recognize any infraspecific taxa in North America.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"elongated" is not a number."thick" is not a number."dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Barbarea vulgaris"
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br />) +
erect +  and ascending +
subquadrangular +, terete +, oblong +  and ovate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz +
W. T. Aiton in W. Aiton and W. T. Aiton +
not +  and rosulate +
attenuate +
Erysimum barbarea +
appendaged +  and unappendaged +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
lobed +, dentate +, repand +, crenate +  and entire +
suborbicular;ovate +
much smaller +  and reduced +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
urceolate +, campanulate +  and tubular +
branched +  and simple +
well-developed +
distinct +
differentiated +
Cress +, yellow-rocket +  and cressy-greens +
emarginate +  and entire +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Alaska +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Ga. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +, Europe +, Asia +  and n Africa +
0-3000 m +
straight +  and curved +
not winged +  and unappendaged +
connate +  and distinct +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
actinomorphic +
not basally +  and saccate +
Dilated (?) +  and Oblong (?) +
latiseptate +  and unsegmented +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
1.5cm;3cm +
erect +  and erect-ascending +
4-angled +, compressed +, terete +  and torulose +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
latiseptate +, stipitate +  and sessile +
4-angled +, terete +  and torulose +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
Waste places, ditches, riverbanks, damp grasslands, roadsides, fields, disturbed sites +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
sessile +  and petiolate +
alternate +, not +  and rosulate +
cauline +  and basal +
connate +  and distinct +
decurrent +
subentire;dentate;crenate;dentate;crenate;repand;entire +
median +  and lateral +
toothlike +  and annular +
tenuinucellate +, crassinucellate +  and bitegmic +
campylotropous +  and anatropous +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
rudimentary +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (17 cm170 mm <br />0.17 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr–Jul. +
trinucleate +  and 3(-11)-colpate +
in W. Aiton and W. T. Aiton, Hortus Kew. +
elongated +
stout +  and slender +
mucilaginous +
uniseriate +  and biseriate +
not +  and mucilaginous +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
broadly ovoid +  and oblong or subglobose +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br />) +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
persistent +  and caducous +
distinct +
erect +  and spreading or ascending +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
reduced +
latiseptate +  and unsegmented +
angustiseptate +, 4-angled +  and terete +
latiseptate +  and unsegmented +
angustiseptate +, 4-angled +  and terete +
Weedy +  and Introduced +
tetradynamous +
procumbent +  and decumbent +
2-lobed +, entire +, conical +  and capitate +
subsessile +, sessile +  and petiolate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
persistent +
distinct +
slender +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Barbarea arcuata +, Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata +  and Erysimum arcuatum +
Barbarea vulgaris +
Barbarea +
species +
4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
scale-like +  and forked +
coiled +, 1-7-veined +  and veined +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
anastomosing +
perennial +  and biennial +
rhizomatous +, taprooted +, scapose +  and not +
perennial +, biennial +  and annual +
subshrub +  and herb +
aquatics +  and terrestrial +
glabrous +  and pubescent +