Bidens tripartita

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 831. 1753.

Common names: Bident à trois divisions
Synonyms: Bidens comosa (A. Gray) Wiegand
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 21. Treatment on page 217. Mentioned on page 208, 218.

Annuals, (5–) 20–70 (–200) cm. Leaves sessile or petioles 5–15 (–35+) mm (± winged); blades ± elliptic to ovate or lanceolate, 40–80 (–150+) × 15–40 (–60+) mm, sometimes laciniately 1-pinnatisect with 1–4+ lobes near bases, bases cuneate, margins entire or dentate to serrate, usually ciliate, apices acute to acuminate, faces glabrous or hirtellous. Heads borne singly or in 2s or 3s. Peduncles 10–40 (–80) mm. Calyculi of (2–) 6–7 (–10) ± spreading, oblanceolate or lanceolate to linear, ± foliaceous bractlets or bracts 7–35 (–60) mm, margins (entire or serrate) sometimes sparsely ciliate, abaxial faces hispidulous near bases, distally glabrous. Involucres campanulate to hemispheric or broader, (4–) 5–7 (–12) × (3–) 6–12 (–15+) mm. Phyllaries (6–) 7–8 (–13), elliptic-ovate to lanceovate, (4–) 6–9 (–12) mm. Ray-florets usually 0, sometimes 1–5; laminae orange yellowish, 4–8 mm. Disc-florets (5–) 20–60 (–150+); corollas pale-yellow to orange, (2–) 3–4 mm (gradually ampliate, anthers usually pale). Cypselae blackish to purplish or brown, ± flattened, sometimes weakly 3 (–4) -angled, usually cuneate to linear, outer (3–) 6–7 (–10) mm, inner (4–) 6–9 (–11) mm, margins proximally antrorsely to patently, distally retrorsely, barbed, apices ± truncate to concave, faces ± 1-nerved, usually smooth, seldom notably tuberculate, glabrous or sparsely strigillose; pappi 0, or of (1–) 3–3 (–4+) ± erect to spreading, retrorsely barbed awns (0.2–) 2–3 (–6) mm. 2n = 48.


Phenology: Flowering Aug–Oct.
Habitat: Marshes and other wet sites
Elevation: 10–1700 m

Distribution

V21-527-distribution-map.gif

Alta., B.C., Man., Que., Ala., Alaska, Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., Europe, Asia, n Africa, in Pacific Islands, Australia

Discussion

Plants with cypsela mid-nerves strongly developed (cypselae more or less strongly 4-angled and, often, tuberculate) that are treated below as Bidens connata have been included in B. tripartita, perhaps rightly so. And some botanists have included (or advocated inclusion of) B. eatonii, B. heterodoxa, and/or B. infirma in B. tripartita, as well, perhaps rightly so.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Bidens tripartita"
glabrous +  and hispidulous +
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
dark +  and pale +
connate +  and distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually ovate +  and lanceolate +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
John L. Strother +  and Ronald R. Weedon +
Linnaeus +
ciliate +  and barbellate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
2 +  and 4 +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
cuneate +
compound +  and simple +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
less elliptic;ovate or lanceolate +
15mm;40mm +
winged;ribbed;winged;ribbed +
tuberculate +  and rugose +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
erect +  and spreading or reflexed +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
Bident à trois divisions +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
pale-yellow +  and orange +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
blackish +  and purplish or brown +
usually cuneate +  and linear +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
sessile +  and petiolate +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Alaska +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +, Europe +, Asia +, n Africa +, in Pacific Islands +  and Australia +
10–1700 m +
strigillose +, glabrous +  and hirtellous +
tuberculate +
linear-fusiform;4-angled;ovate;orbiculate;oblong;linear;cuneate +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Marshes and other wet sites +
discoid +  and radiate +
disciform +  and discoid +
in 2s +  and singly +
indeterminate +
homogamous +  and heterogamous +
each +  and sessile +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
campanulate;hemispheric +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
orange yellowish +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
whorled +  and opposite +
deltate +
barbed +, serrate +, dentate +  and entire +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
2-carpellate +
less flat;slightly navicular +
persistent +
of 1-2 , smooth to ciliate or barbed awns or scales +  and coroniform +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
Flowering Aug–Oct. +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
connate +  and distinct +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
styliferous +  and neuter +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
convex;flat +
exalbuminous +
appendaged +  and truncate +
hirsutulous +  and glabrous +
papillate +
Bidens comosa +
Bidens tripartita +
species +
toothed +, serrate +, laciniate +  and dentate +
70 cm700 mm <br />0.7 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (70 cm700 mm <br />0.7 m <br />) +
shrub +  and subshrub +