Boltonia caroliniana

(Walter) Fernald

Rhodora 42: 487. 1940.

Common names: Carolina doll’s-daisy
Endemic
Basionym: Chrysanthemum caroliniana Walter Fl. Carol., 204. 1788
Synonyms: Boltonia ravenelii Fernald & Griscom
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 356. Mentioned on page 354.

Plants 40–200 cm; basal offshoots, stolons present or absent. Stems erect to ascending. Leaf-blades linear to narrowly oblanceolate or linear-obovate; cauline 76–140 × 18–26 mm, bases not decurrent. Heads in paniculiform arrays, branches spreading to ascending; bracts 7–35 × 1–5 mm. Peduncles 8–58 mm; bracts 1–3, linear to linear-subulate, 1–2 mm. Involucres 2–5 × 3–7 mm. Phyllaries in 2–3 series, linear-subulate, subequal, (0–) 1–3 (–5) merging down peduncles; outer 1.2–1.6 × 0.2–0.4 mm; inner 1.9–2.2 × 0.3–0.5 mm. Ray-florets 25–36; corollas white to lilac, laminae 3–7.5 mm, tubes 0.5–0.7 mm. Disc-florets 100–170; corollas 1.7–5 mm. Cypselae obovoid, 1.4–1.6 × 0.8–0.9 mm, wings 0 or 0.01–0.1 mm wide, faces mostly glabrous; pappus awns 0–0.4 mm. 2n = 18.


Phenology: Flowering Aug–Oct.
Habitat: Alluvial woods, swales, sandy wooded bottomlands
Elevation: 10–300 m

Discussion

Populations of Boltonia caroliniana present in eastern South Carolina to southeastern Virginia are atypical in array and leaf dimensions. They are characterized by broad, oblanceolate or obovate leaves subtending the branches of the arrays, stiffly ascending peduncles, and lilac rays; they were described as B. ravenelii. J. T. Morgan (1966) argued that some of the plants collected in Virginia “would key out to B. caroliniana while others from the same population better fit the description of B. ravenelii.” Therefore, she placed B. ravenelii in synonymy of B. caroliniana. Detailed studies of these populations and the biology of the species may resolve their taxonomic status.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Boltonia caroliniana"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
paniculiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
Vesna Karaman-Castro +  and Lowell E. Urbatsch +
(Walter) Fernald +
7 +  and 12 +
not decurrent +
Chrysanthemum caroliniana +
subulate;lanceolate or oblanceolate +
rugulose +  and muricate +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
linear +  and linear-subulate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
spreading;ascending +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
7.6 cm76 mm <br />0.076 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br />) +
Carolina doll’s-daisy +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
white +  and lilac +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br />) +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br />) +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
compressed;obovoid;cuneate or obcordiform +
N.C. +, S.C. +  and Va. +
10–300 m +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Alluvial woods, swales, sandy wooded bottomlands +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
each +  and sessile +
0.19 cm1.9 mm <br />0.0019 m <br /> (0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br />) +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
hemispheric +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.75 cm7.5 mm <br />0.0075 m <br />) +
cauline +  and basal +
triangular +
not +  and winged +
entire +  and serrulate +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br />) +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br />) +
2-carpellate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br />) +
persistent +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (5.8 cm58 mm <br />0.058 m <br />) +
Flowering Aug–Oct. +
linear-subulate +
triquetrous +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
conic;hemispheric +
adaxial +  and abaxial +
1 +  and 2 +
exalbuminous +
erect +  and ascending +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Boltonia ravenelii +
Boltonia caroliniana +
Boltonia +
species +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br />) +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +
0.01-0.1 mm +