Bothriochloa ischaemum

(L.) Keng
Introduced
Synonyms: Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica Andropogon ischaemum var. songaricus Andropogon ischaemum
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 25. Treatment on page 646.

Plants usually cespitose, occasionally stoloniferous or almost rhizomatous under close grazing or cutting. Culms 30-80 (95) cm, stiffly erect; nodes glabrous or short hirsute. Leaves tending to basal; ligules 0.5-1.5 mm; blades 5-25 cm long, 2-4.5 mm wide, flat to folded, glabrous or with long, scattered hairs at the base of the blade. Panicles 5-10 cm, fan-shaped, silvery reddish-purple; rachises 0.5-2 cm, with (1) 2-8 branches; branches 3-9 cm, longer than the rachises, erect to somewhat spreading from the axillary pulvini, usually with only 1 rame; rame internodes with a central groove narrower than the margins, margins ciliate, with 1-3 mm hairs. Sessile spikelets 3-4.5 mm, narrowly ovate; lower glumes hirsute below, with about 1 mm hairs, lacking a dorsal pit; awns 9-17 mm, twisted, geniculate; anthers 1-2 mm. Pedicellate spikelets about as long as the sessile spikelets, but usually narrower, sterile or staminate. 2n = 40, 50, 60.

Distribution

Puerto Rico, Tenn., Kans., Okla., Colo., Miss., Tex., La., Utah, Calif., Ohio, Ala., Ark., Ariz., N.Y., S.C., Virgin Islands, Ga., Fla., N.Mex.

Discussion

Bothriochloa ischaemum. grows along roadsides and in waste ground and rangeland pastures, at 50-1200 m. It is native to southern Europe and Asia. It was introduced to the United States for erosion control along right of ways and for livestock forage in the southwest. It is now established in the region and has spread along roadsides into other central and southern states. There are two variants that are sometimes recognized as varieties, plants with glabrous nodes being called B. ischaemum var. ischaemum and plants with pubescent nodes being called B. ischaemum var. songarica (Rupr. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Celarier & J.R. Harlan. The varieties are not recognized here.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number."elongated" is not a number."narrower" is not a number.

... more about "Bothriochloa ischaemum"
60 +, 50 +  and 40 +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
anatomy +  and kranz +
Kelly W. Allred +
(L.) Keng +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
geniculate +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
divergent +  and parallel +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
swelling +
pseudopetiolate +
non-radiate +  and radiate +
well-developed +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
with long , scattered hairs +  and glabrous +
flat +  and folded +
reduced +
2mm;4.5mm +
spreading;erect to somewhat +
spikelike +
flattened +, lanceolate +  and oblong +
purple +  and reddish +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (80 cm800 mm <br />0.8 m <br />) +
not woody +
Puerto Rico +, Tenn. +, Kans. +, Okla. +, Colo. +, Miss. +, Tex. +, La. +, Utah +, Calif. +, Ohio +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Ariz. +, N.Y. +, S.C. +, Virgin Islands +, Ga. +, Fla. +  and N.Mex. +
capillary +
sometimes longer +
concealing +
compressed +  and terete +
shorter or longer +
subtending +
compressed +  and rounded +
unequal +
uncinate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
bracteate +  and ebracteate +
pedunculate +  and multiple-stalked +
axillary +  and subtending +
solid +  and hollow +
photosynthetic +
not aromatic +
cauline +  and basal +
coriaceous +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
complex +  and simple +
concealed +  and prominent +
hirsute +, short +  and glabrous +
sessile-pedicellate +
heterogamous +
silvery reddish-purple +
fan--shaped +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
fused +  and free +
dry +  and fleshy +
elongate +
Introduced +
staminate +, pedicellate +  and sessile +
in triplets +  and paired +
well-developed +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
fused +  and free +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
dome--shaped +  and triangular +
Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica +, Andropogon ischaemum var. songaricus +  and Andropogon ischaemum +
Bothriochloa ischaemum +
Bothriochloa +
species +
membranous +
sessile-pedicellate +
rhizomatous +  and stoloniferous +
plant +  and cespitose +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +
dioecious +, monoecious +  and synoecious +