Bouteloua curtipendula

(Michx.) Torr.
Common names: Sideoats grama
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 25. Treatment on page 254.

Plants perennial; cespitose or not, with or without rhizomes. Culms 8-80 cm, erect or decumbent, solitary or in small to large groups. Leaves evenly distributed; sheaths mostly glabrous, sometimes with hairs distally; ligules 0.3-0.5 mm, membranous, ciliate; blades 2-30 cm long (1.4) 2.5-7 mm wide, at least some over 2.5 mm wide, flat or folded when dry, usually smooth abaxially and scabrous adaxially, occasionally pubescent, bases usually with papillose-based hairs on the margins. Panicles 13-30 cm, secund, with (12) 30-80 reflexed branches; branches (5) 10-30 (40) mm, deciduous, with (1) 2-7 (15) spikelets, axes terminating 3-5 mm beyond the base of the terminal spikelets, apices entire; disarticulation at the base of the branches. Spikelets appressed, all alike, with 1 bisexual and 1-2 sterile, rudimentary florets. Glumes unequal, glabrous or scabrous; lower glumes 2.5-6 mm, 1/2 or more as long as the upper glumes; upper glumes 5.5-8 mm; lowest lemmas 3-6.5 mm, glabrous or scabrous-strigose, often minutely rugose, acute or inconspicuously 3-lobed, 3-veined, veins usually extending as short mucros or awns to 6 mm; central mucros or awns not flanked by membranous lobes; lowest paleas acute, unawned; anthers 1.5-3.5 mm, yellow, orange, red, or purple; distal floret (s) 0.4-3.5 mm, sterile, variable, usually a glabrous lemma having a short membranous base, no palea, and 3 unequally-developed awns, central awns 1.5-7 mm. 2n = (20), 40, 41-103.

Distribution

Conn., N.J., N.Y., W.Va., Alta., B.C., Man., Ont., Sask., D.C., Wis., Idaho, Maine, S.C., Pacific Islands (Hawaii), Oreg., Fla., Wyo., N.Mex., Tex., La., N.C., Tenn., Pa., Ala., Ariz., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., Md., Mich., Minn., Miss., N.Dak., Nebr., Ohio, S.Dak., Utah, Ark., Wash., Va., Colo., Calif., Kans., Okla., Iowa, Mo., Mont.

Discussion

Bouteloua curtipendula is a common, often dominant or co-dominant species in open grasslands and wetlands of the drier portions of the central grasslands of North America. It is highly regarded as a forage species and is also an attractive ornamental. Its range extends from the Flora region through Mexico and Central America to western South America.

As the range of chromosome numbers suggests, B. curtipendula is an apomictic species. There are three varieties. Two of the three grow in the Flora region; the third, B. curtipendula var. tenuis Gould & Kapadia, is endemic to Mexico.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Plants long-rhizomatous; culms solitary or in small clumps Bouteloua curtipendula var. curtipendula
1 Plants not long-rhizomatous, bases sometimes knotty with short rhizomes; culms in large or small clumps Bouteloua curtipendula var. caespitosa

"decumbent" is not a number.

... more about "Bouteloua curtipendula"
purple +, red +, orange +  and yellow +
1 +  and 3 +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
J.K. Wipff +
(Michx.) Torr. +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
unequally-developed +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
not fused +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
swelling +
membranous +
not pseudopetiolate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
folded +  and flat +
wide;2.5mm;7mm +
subdigitate +  and digitate +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (?) +
spikelike +
not woody +
triangular +  and dome--shaped +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
sometimes longer +
membranous +
Sideoats grama +
small +  and large +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (80 cm800 mm <br />0.8 m <br />) +
not woody +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
Conn. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, W.Va. +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, Ont. +, Sask. +, D.C. +, Wis. +, Idaho +, Maine +, S.C. +, Pacific Islands (Hawaii) +, Oreg. +, Fla. +, Wyo. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, La. +, N.C. +, Tenn. +, Pa. +, Ala. +, Ariz. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Ky. +, Md. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, N.Dak. +, Nebr. +, Ohio +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Ark. +, Wash. +, Va. +, Colo. +, Calif. +, Kans. +, Okla. +, Iowa +, Mo. +  and Mont. +
not waisted +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
4-lobed +  and trilobed +
sometimes longer +
rudimentary +
1 +  and 2 +
sterile +  and bisexual +
round +  and compressed +
reduced +
shorter or longer +
subtending +
scabrous +  and glabrous +
both +  and 1 +
acuminate +  and acute +
unequal +
papillose-based +
uncinate +
paniculate +  and racemose +
hollow +  and solid +
not absent +
distributed +
5-veined +, 7-13-veined +  and 1-3-veined +
sometimes longer +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
membranous +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
scabrous-strigose +  and glabrous +
3-lobed +  and acute +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br />) +
concealed +  and prominent +
2 +  and 1 +
3 +  and no +
13 cm130 mm <br />0.13 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
dry +  and fleshy +
spikelike +
elongate +
flabellate +
sessile +  and subsessile +
terete +, compressed +  and pectinate +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
compound +  and simple +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
Gramineae +
Bouteloua curtipendula +
Bouteloua subg. Bouteloua +
species +
membranous +
0.55 cm5.5 mm <br />0.0055 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
7 +  and 13 +
extended +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
rhizomatous +  and stoloniferous +
plant +, not +  and cespitose +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +