Brassica napus

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 666. 1753.

Common names: Canola oilseed rape rape rapeseed rutabaga swede swede rape Swedish turnip
Introduced
Synonyms: Brassica napobrassica (Linnaeus) Miller Brassica napus var. oleifera de Candolle Brassica oleracea var. napobrassica Linnaeus
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 422. Mentioned on page 226, 420, 424.

Annuals or biennials; (taproot slender or swollen); (glaucous), glabrous, glabrescent, or pubescent, (trichomes coarse). Stems branched distally, 3–13 dm. Basal leaves (rosulate when biennial); petiole (often winged), to 15 cm; blade lyrate-pinnatifid, ± pinnately lobed, 5–25 (–40) cm × 20–70 (–100) mm, lobes 0–6 each side, (smaller than terminal), surfaces (glaucous), glabrous or sparsely hairy when immature, glabrescent, or, rarely, pubescent. Cauline leaves (middle and distal) sessile; blade base auriculate or amplexicaul, (margins entire). Racemes not paniculately branched, (buds overtopping or equal to open flowers). Fruiting pedicels spreading to ascending (slender), 1–3 cm. Flowers: sepals (5–) 6–10 × 1.5–2.5 mm; petals golden or creamy to pale-yellow, broadly obovate, 10–16 × (5–) 6–9 (–10) mm, claw 5–9 mm, apex rounded; filaments (5–) 7–10 mm; anthers 1.5–2.5 mm. Fruits spreading to ascending, smooth or slightly torulose, terete, (3.5–) 5–10 (–11) cm × (2.5–) 3.5–5 mm; valvular segment with 12–20 (–30) seeds per locule, (3–) 4–8.5 (–9.5) cm, terminal segment usually seedless, rarely 1 or 2-seeded (attenuate-conic, thin), (5–) 9–16 mm. Seeds dark-brown to black, light-brown, or reddish, 1.8–2.7 (–3) mm diam.; seed-coat finely reticulate-alveolate, not mucilaginous when wetted. 2n = 38.


Phenology: Flowering May–Sep.
Habitat: Roadsides, disturbed areas, waste places, cultivated and abandoned fields, escape from cultivation
Elevation: 0-500 m

Distribution

V7 622-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., Tenn., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Europe, Asia, Africa, also in Mexico, Central America, South America, Atlantic Islands, Australia

Discussion

Brassica napus is both a crop and a sporadically occurring naturalized weed in North America, grown in two forms recognized by some as subspecies. Subspecies napus (rape, rapeseed, or canola) is an annual with slender roots widely cultivated as an oil crop and is the most commonly naturalized. Subspecies rapifera Metzger [= subsp. napobrassica (Linnaeus) Hanelt] (rutabaga, swede, or Swedish turnip) is a biennial with fleshy roots that rarely escapes from cultivation.

Although Brassica napus has been reported as a weed from most southeastern states, it is very likely that most reports represent misidentifications of B. rapa (I. A. Al-Shehbaz 1985). It is difficult to distinguish between plants of B. napus and B. rapa that lack flowers and proximal leaves.

Brassica napus is an allotetraploid derived from hybridization between the B. oleracea complex (n = 9) and B. rapa (n = 10). Its center of origin is uncertain but likely Mediterranean Europe, with molecular data supporting evidence of multiple independent origins between the parental taxa B. oleracea and B. rapa and its related n = 9 species (Song K. et al. 1993). Specimens from West Virginia have not been observed.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"elongated" is not a number."thick" is not a number."dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Brassica napus"
ovate +  and oblong +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
Suzanne I. Warwick +
Linnaeus +
not +  and rosulate +
appendaged +  and unappendaged +
25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
lyrate-pinnatifid +, dentate +  and entire +
dissected +, repand +, sinuate +, crenate +  and dentate +
much smaller +  and reduced +
20mm;70mm +
urceolate +, campanulate +  and tubular +
branched +  and simple +
well-developed +
distinct +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
differentiated +
Canola +, oilseed rape +, rape +, rapeseed +, rutabaga +, swede +, swede rape +  and Swedish turnip +
emarginate +  and entire +
incumbent +, accumbent +  and conduplicate +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.W.T. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, Tenn. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Europe +, Asia +, Africa +, also in Mexico +, Central America +, South America +, Atlantic Islands +  and Australia +
0-500 m +
straight +  and curved +
not winged +  and unappendaged +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
connate +  and distinct +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
actinomorphic +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
indehiscent +  and dehiscent +
5cm;10cm +
spreading +  and ascending +
terete +  and torulose +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
stipitate +  and sessile +
Roadsides, disturbed areas, waste places, cultivated and abandoned fields, escape from cultivation +
sessile +  and petiolate +
alternate +, not +  and rosulate +
cauline +  and basal +
connate +  and distinct +
decurrent +
sinuate-serrate;lobed;sinuate-serrate;lobed;dentate +
not +  and confluent +
tenuinucellate +, crassinucellate +  and bitegmic +
campylotropous +  and anatropous +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
rudimentary +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
Flowering May–Sep. +
trinucleate +  and 3(-11)-colpate +
elongated +
spreading +  and ascending +
slender +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
mucilaginous +
reticulate-alveolate +
aseriate +, uniseriate +  and biseriate +
not +  and mucilaginous +
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.27 cm2.7 mm <br />0.0027 m <br />) +
12 +  and 20 +
globose +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
persistent +  and caducous +
distinct +
spreading +, ascending +  and erect +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
reduced +
indehiscent +  and dehiscent +
terete +  and segmented +
indehiscent +  and dehiscent +
terete +  and segmented +
Introduced +
tetradynamous +
procumbent +  and decumbent +
2-lobed +  and entire +
subsessile +, sessile +  and petiolate +
persistent +
distinct +
pubescent +, glabrescent +, hairy +  and glabrous +
Brassica napobrassica +, Brassica napus var. oleifera +  and Brassica oleracea var. napobrassica +
Brassica napus +
Brassica +
species +
2-seeded +  and seedless +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
scale-like +  and forked +
8.5 cm85 mm <br />0.085 m <br /> (9.5 cm95 mm <br />0.095 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (8.5 cm85 mm <br />0.085 m <br />) +
anastomosing +
biennial +  and annual +
glabrous +, pubescent +  and glabrescent +
rhizomatous +, taprooted +, scapose +  and not +
perennial +, biennial +  and annual +
subshrub +  and herb +
aquatics +  and terrestrial +
glabrous +  and pubescent +
11 +, 10 +, 9 +, 8 +  and 7 +