Brassica oleracea

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 667. 1753.

Common names: Cabbage
Introduced
Synonyms: Brassica alboglabra L. H. Bailey
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 423. Mentioned on page 420, 422.

Biennials or perennials; (with slender taproot or woody caudex, becoming suffrutescent and covered with conspicuous leaf-scars); (glaucous), glabrous. Stems branched distally, 5–10 dm. Basal leaves: petiole to 30 cm; blade oblong or obovate, to 45 cm × 150 mm, (fleshy), blades pinnatifid or margins dentate. Cauline leaves (distal) sessile; blade (oblong to lanceolate), base auriculate and amplexicaul, (margins entire). Racemes not paniculately branched. Fruiting pedicels spreading to ascending, (8–) 14–25 (–40) mm. Flowers: sepals 8–15 × 1.5–2.7 mm; petals yellow, white, or lemon yellow, ovate or elliptic, (15–) 18–25 (–30) × (6–) 8–12 mm, claw 7–15 mm, apex rounded; filaments 8–12 mm; anthers 2.5–4 mm. Fruits spreading to ascending, smooth, ± 4-angled or subterete, (2.5–) 5–8 (–10) cm × (2.5–) 3–4 (–5) mm; valvular segment with 10–20 seeds per locule, (2–) 3–7.5 (–9) cm, terminal segment usually seedless, rarely 1 or 2-seeded, (conic), (3–) 4–10 mm. Seeds brown, 1.7–2.5 mm diam.; seed-coat reticulate, not mucilaginous when wetted. 2n = 18.


Phenology: Flowering May–Aug.
Habitat: Maritime slopes or sea-facing cliffs, weedy escape, gardens, abandoned fields, waste places
Elevation: 0-100 m

Distribution

V7 624-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; Nfld. and Labr., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Calif., Conn., Ill., Iowa, Ky., Mass., N.Y., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Tex., Vt., Europe, Asia, Africa, also in Australia

Discussion

Brassica oleracea is widely cultivated worldwide as a vegetable crop, and its various forms are generally recognized as varieties instead of subspecies; these include var. acephala de Candolle (kale and collards), var. botrytis Linnaeus (cauliflower), var. capitata Linnaeus (cabbage), var. gemmifera Zenk (Brussels sprouts), var. gongylodes Linnaeus (kohlrabi), and var. italica Plenk (broccoli). It also occurs sporadically as a weedy escape from cultivation and seems unlikely to persist for long periods of time. It is reported to be naturalized on coastal cliffs (maritime slopes) in the northern Central Coastal Region and the central and southern North Coastal Region in California (Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, and Ventura counties) (J. T. Howell et al. 1958; Howell 1970; H. G. Baker 1972; R. C. Rollins 1993b).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"elongated" is not a number."thick" is not a number."dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Brassica oleracea"
ovate +  and oblong +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Suzanne I. Warwick +
Linnaeus +
not +  and rosulate +
auriculate +
appendaged +  and unappendaged +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (45 cm450 mm <br />0.45 m <br />) +
lyrate-pinnatifid +, dentate +  and entire +
dissected +, repand +, sinuate +, crenate +  and dentate +
pinnatifid;obovate;oblong +
much smaller +  and reduced +
urceolate +, campanulate +  and tubular +
branched +  and simple +
well-developed +
distinct +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
differentiated +
Cabbage +
emarginate +  and entire +
incumbent +, accumbent +  and conduplicate +
Nfld. and Labr. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Calif. +, Conn. +, Ill. +, Iowa +, Ky. +, Mass. +, N.Y. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, Tex. +, Vt. +, Europe +, Asia +, Africa +  and also in Australia +
0-100 m +
straight +  and curved +
not winged +  and unappendaged +
connate +  and distinct +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
actinomorphic +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
indehiscent +  and dehiscent +
spreading +  and ascending +
subterete +  and 4-angled +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
stipitate +  and sessile +
Maritime slopes or sea-facing cliffs, weedy escape, gardens, abandoned fields, waste places +
sessile +  and petiolate +
alternate +, not +  and rosulate +
cauline +  and basal +
connate +  and distinct +
decurrent +
sinuate-serrate;lobed;sinuate-serrate;lobed;dentate +
not +  and confluent +
tenuinucellate +, crassinucellate +  and bitegmic +
campylotropous +  and anatropous +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
rudimentary +
Elliptic (?) +  and Ovate (?) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
Flowering May–Aug. +
trinucleate +  and 3(-11)-colpate +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
elongated +
spreading +  and ascending +
slender +
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
mucilaginous +
aseriate +, uniseriate +  and biseriate +
not +  and mucilaginous +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
10 +  and 20 +
globose +
persistent +  and caducous +
distinct +
spreading +, ascending +  and erect +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.27 cm2.7 mm <br />0.0027 m <br />) +
reduced +
indehiscent +  and dehiscent +
terete +  and segmented +
indehiscent +  and dehiscent +
terete +  and segmented +
Introduced +
tetradynamous +
procumbent +  and decumbent +
2-lobed +  and entire +
subsessile +, sessile +  and petiolate +
persistent +
distinct +
Brassica alboglabra +
Brassica oleracea +
Brassica +
species +
2-seeded +  and seedless +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
scale-like +  and forked +
7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br />) +
anastomosing +
perennial +  and biennial +
rhizomatous +, taprooted +, scapose +  and not +
perennial +, biennial +  and annual +
subshrub +  and herb +
aquatics +  and terrestrial +
glabrous +  and pubescent +
11 +, 10 +, 9 +, 8 +  and 7 +