Bryonia

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 1012. 1753.

,

Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 442 [as Bronia]. 1754.

Common names: Bryony
Introduced
Etymology: Greek bruein, to burgeon or sprout, alluding to rapid growth of herbaceous stems produced annually from large perennial roots
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 6. Treatment on page 11. Mentioned on page 5, 39.

Plants perennial, usually dioecious, rarely monoecious, climbing or sprawling; stems annual, hispidulous to glabrate; roots tuberous; tendrils unbranched. Leaves: blade orbiculate to ovate or hastate, 3–5-angled, or palmately 3–5-lobed, lobes ovate to deltate or triangular, margins coarsely toothed, surfaces eglandular. Inflorescences: staminate flowers 4–16 in axillary racemes or fascicles; pistillate flowers [1–] 2–6 (–10) in axillary corymboid to racemoid panicles; bracts absent. Flowers: hypanthium campanulate to shallowly campanulate; sepals 5, lanceolate to deltate; petals 5, distinct, white to cream, greenish white, or yellowish green, or yellowish, usually green-throated and faintly green-lined, oblong-ovate to ovatelanceolate, 3–7 mm, glabrate, corolla broadly funnelform-campanulate to nearly rotate. Staminate flowers: stamens 5, 2 connate in pairs, 1 distinct, appearing as 3 stamens; filaments inserted near hypanthium rim, distinct; thecae distinct, C-curved to S-curved, connective broadened and sheetlike; pistillodes absent. Pistillate flowers: ovary 1-locular, ovoid to broadly ellipsoid; ovules 3–10 per locule; style 1, slender-columnar; stigmas 3, 2-lobed; staminodes 3–5 or absent or vestigial. Fruits berrylike, red to orange or black, globose, smooth, glabrous, indehiscent. Seeds 2–8, ovoid or oblong, compressed, not arillate, margins thickened-corrugated or not differentiated, surface roughened.

Distribution

Introduced; Europe, Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands

Discussion

Species ca. 12 (2 in the flora).

Key

1 Plants monoecious; fruits black; stigmas glabrous. Bryonia alba
1 Plants dioecious; fruits red to orange; stigmas hairy. Bryonia dioica
... more about "Bryonia"
distinct +  and connate +
Guy L. Nesom +
Linnaeus +
orbiculate;ovate or hastate 3-5-angled or palmately 3-5-lobed +
tubular +, saucer--shaped +, campanulate +  and rotate +
Europe +, Asia +, Africa +  and Pacific Islands +
Greek bruein, to burgeon or sprout, alluding to rapid growth of herbaceous stems produced annually from large perennial roots +
furrowed +  and echinate +
dehiscent +  and indehiscent +
bristly +, smooth +, hairy +  and glabrous +
tuberculate +  and muricate +
fleshy +  and hard +
pistillate +  and staminate +
red;orange or black +
indehiscent +
globose +
perennial +
dioecious +  and monoecious +
umbellate;subumbellate +
solitary +, corymbose +, fasciculate +, racemose +  and paniculate +
petiolate +, estipulate +  and simple +
ovate;deltate or triangular +
thickened-corrugated +
not differentiated +
ovoid;broadly ellipsoid +
induplicate-valvate +  and imbricate +
distinct +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
Sp. Pl. +  and Gen. Pl. ed. +
1753 +  and 1754 +
jeffrey1969a +  and volz2009a +
not arillate +
compressed +, oblong +  and ovoid +
lanceolate;deltate +
Introduced +
distinct +  and connate +
3 (?) +, 2 (?) +  and 5 (?) +
climbing +  and procumbent +
sprawling +  and prostrate +
slender-columnar +
Bryonia +
Cucurbitaceae +
distinct +
plant +, sprawling +  and climbing +
monoecious +  and dioecious +