Carpinus caroliniana subsp. virginiana

(Marshall) Furlow

Syst. Bot. 12: 429. 1987.

Common names: American hornbeam blue beech musclewood ironwood charme de Caroline bois de fer
EndemicIllustrated
Basionym: Carpinus betulus var. virginiana Marshall Arbust. Amer., 25. 1785 Carpinus virginiana 1893
Synonyms: Carpinus caroliniana var. virginiana (Marshall) Fernald
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 3.

Trees, to 12 m; trunks short, crooked, shallowly to deeply and often irregularly fluted, crowns broadly spreading. Bark bluish gray, smooth to somewhat roughened. Leaf-blade ovate or elliptic to narrowly elliptic, (6–) 8–12 × 3.5–6 cm, base narrowly rounded to cordate, margins coarsely and unevenly doubly serrate, teeth sharp and slender, secondary teeth almost as large as primary teeth, apex usually abruptly nearly caudate, but sometimes long, gradually tapered; surfaces abaxially usually moderately pubescent, especially on major veins, covered with numerous tiny, dark-brown glands. Inflorescences: staminate inflorescences 2–6 cm; pistillate inflorescences 1–3 cm. Infructescences 4.5–12 cm; bracts 2.5–3.5 × 1.5–2.8 cm, lobes narrowly triangular, sharp-tipped. 2n = 16.


Phenology: Flowering late spring.
Habitat: In understory stratum in rich deciduous forest along stream banks, on flood plains, and on moist hillsides
Elevation: 0–300 m

Distribution

V3 707-distribution-map.gif

Ont., Que., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

Carpinus caroliniana subsp. virginiana is the familiar hornbeam of the Appalachians and interior forested northeastern North America. The leaves are distinctive in that they bear scattered dark glands on the abaxial surface. This subspecies hybridizes and intergrades with subsp. caroliniana where their ranges overlap in a broad band running from the Carolinas south to northern Georgia and westward to Missouri, Arkansas, and southeastern Oklahoma (J. J. Furlow 1987).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
Tapered (?) +  and Caudate (?) +
John J. Furlow +
(Marshall) Furlow +
tanniferous +  and furrowed +
bluish gray +
smooth to somewhat +
narrowly rounded +  and cordate +
Carpinus betulus var. virginiana +  and Carpinus virginiana +
deciduous +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
subtending +
toothed +  and (1-)3-lobed +
expanded +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.8 cm28 mm <br />0.028 m <br />) +
fluted +  and ridged +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
staminate +  and pistillate +
solitary +  and in small racemose clusters , lateral , formed previous growing season +
elongate +
expanding +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
American hornbeam +, blue beech +, musclewood +, ironwood +, charme de Caroline +  and bois de fer +
multibracteate +
Ont. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
0–300 m +
pistillate +  and staminate +
reduced +  and small +
membranaceous +
deltoid +
tiny;moderately large +
conspicuous +
In understory stratum in rich deciduous forest along stream banks, on flood plains, and on moist hillsides +
pistillate +  and staminate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
cluster +  and racemose +
4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
elliptic +  and elliptic to narrowly +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
inconspicuous +
sharp-tipped +
triangular +
Flowering late spring. +
2(-3)-carpellate +
often not much longer +
1-seeded +  and 2-winged +
cluster +  and racemose +
persistent +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
nearly +  and distinct +
Carpinus caroliniana var. virginiana +
Carpinus caroliniana subsp. virginiana +
Carpinus caroliniana +
subspecies +
slender +
differentiated +
tanniferous +