Carthamus

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 830. 1753.

,

Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 361. 1754.

Common names: Distaff thistle
Etymology: Arabic qartam, safflower
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 19. Treatment on page 178. Mentioned on page 52, 67, 83.

Annuals or perennials, 30–180 cm, herbage glabrous to ± glandular and/or ± tomentose. Stems usually erect, branched distally or throughout, (leafy). Leaves basal and cauline or all cauline; basal and proximal cauline winged-petiolate, distal cauline sessile, sometimes clasping; blade margins dentate to pinnately lobed, ± spiny, faces glabrous or ± glandlar and/or ± tomentose. Heads discoid, borne singly or in few-headed cymiform arrays. Involucres ovoid, constricted distally. Phyllaries many in 4–5 series, linear to ovate (at least outer ± leaflike), bases appressed, apical appendages more herbaceous, prominently veiny, spiny-dentate or lobed, spine-tipped. Receptacles convex to conic, epaleate, bearing subulate scales. Florets 15–60+; corollas yellow to red or ± purple, tubes very slender, throats gradually or abruptly expanded, ± cylindric or short-campanulate, lobes linear; anther bases short-tailed, apical appendages oblong; style-branches: fused portions with slightly swollen basal nodes minutely hairy, distally minutely papillate, distinct portions very short. Cypselae oblong to obpyramidal, ± 4-angled, apices with smooth or dentate rims, faces usually ± roughened (outer) or smooth (inner), glabrous, attachment scars lateral; pappi 0 or (usually only inner cypselae) ± persistent, of many, usually unequal, narrow scales overlapping in several series. x = 10, 12.

Distribution

Introduced; United States, Mediterranean region

Discussion

Species 14 (4 in the flora).

Key

1 Corollas pink or pale purple; cauline leaves ± deeply lobed Carthamus leucocaulos
1 Corollas yellow to red; cauline leaves toothed to deeply lobed > 2
2 Cauline leaves toothed, otherwise undivided, weakly spiny; corollas yellow to red; cypselae white Carthamus tinctorius
2 Cauline leaves ± divided, very spiny; corollas yellow; cypselae brown > 3
3 Anthers yellow, pollen yellow; corollas bright yellow; outer phyllaries usually not more than 1.5 times as long as inner; herbage ± cobwebby; stems stramineous. Carthamus lanatus
3 Anthers white with purple lines, pollen white; corollas pale yellow; outer phyllaries usually 2 times as long as inner; herbage ± sparsely hairy; stems white or stramineous Carthamus creticus

"fine" is not a number.

... more about "Carthamus"
short-tailed +
scarious +
oblong +, lobed +  and spiny-dentate +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
David J. Keil +
Linnaeus +
decurrent +
Asteraceae tribe Cynareae +
compound +  and simple +
dentate +  and pinnately lobed +
10-nerved or 20-nerved +  and rugose +
Distaff thistle +
actinomorphic +
yellow +  and red or more or less purple +
4-angled +, oblong +  and obpyramidal +
fertile +  and bisexual +
United States +  and Mediterranean region +
Arabic qartam, safflower +
glabrous +, tomentose +  and more or less +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
in few-headed cymiform arrays +  and singly +
indeterminate +
glabrous +  and more or less glandular and/or more or less tomentose +
each +  and sessile +
constricted +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +, all +  and basal +
deltate +, usually narrowly triangular +  and more or less linear +
entire +  and dentate +
usually lobed +  and dissected +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
papillate +  and smooth +
distinct +  and fused +
papillate +
Sp. Pl. +  and Gen. Pl. ed. +
1753 +  and 1754 +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
convex;conic +
ashri1959a +, ashri1960a +, hanelt1963a +, hanelt1976a +, khidir1970a +  and khidir1970b +
dentate +  and smooth +
overlapping +
subulate +
unequal +
exalbuminous +
several;4;5 +
appendaged +  and truncate +
dilated +  and swollen +
enlarged +
Compositae +
Carthamus +
Asteraceae tribe Cardueae +
short-campanulate +  and cylindric +
expanded +
slender +
perennial +  and annual +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (180 cm1,800 mm <br />1.8 m <br />) +
tree +, vine +, shrub +  and subshrub +