Castilleja coccinea

(Linnaeus) Sprengel

Syst. Veg. 2: 775. 1825.

Common names: Painted-cup red or scarlet paintbrush
IllustratedEndemic
Basionyms: Bartsia coccinea Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 602. 1753
Synonyms: Castilleja ludoviciana Pennell
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 598. Mentioned on page 569, 594, 617.

Herbs, annual or biennial, 1.2–5 (–7) dm; with fibrous-roots. Stems solitary or few, erect to ascending, unbranched, rarely branched, hairs spreading, long, soft, eglandular, others shorter and glandular. Leaves green to sometimes brownish, rosette leaves persisting or withered at anthesis, oblanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 1–3 cm, usually 0-lobed; cauline leaves linear-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 2–7 (–8) cm, not fleshy, margins plane, sometimes wavy, involute, 3–7 (–9) -lobed, apex acute to acuminate; cauline leaves: lobes spreading to ascending, linear to oblong, (2–) 5–25 mm, apex acuminate. Inflorescences 2–35 (longest in fruit) × 1.5–6 cm; bracts proximally greenish to brownish green, distally red, sometimes orange, yellow, or white, lanceolate to obovate, 3 (–5) -lobed; lobes spreading-ascending, lanceolate and longer on proximal bracts, becoming oblanceolate, shorter, and wider on distal bracts, arising from distal 3/4 of blade, apex acute to rounded. Calyces colored as bracts, 17–23 (–28) mm; abaxial clefts 6–10 mm, adaxial 5–8 mm, clefts 33–50% of calyx length, deeper than laterals, lateral 0–1 mm, 0–5% of calyx length; lobes oblong to triangular, apex rounded to truncate, sometimes emarginate. Corollas straight, 18–31 mm; tube 15–18 mm; abaxial lip ± exserted, beak exserted, often whitish, yellowish, or faint dull reddish proximally, adaxially green distally, 7–10 mm; abaxial lip green to yellowish, apex pink to yellow, reduced, ± protuberant, 1.5–4 mm, 20–33% as long as beak; teeth erect, green or yellow, apices white, yellow, or pink, 2–4 (–5) mm. 2n = 24, 46, 48.


Phenology: Flowering Jan–Sep.
Habitat: Damp or wet meadows, roadsides, prairies, swamps, peatlands, ditches, thickets, dunes, jack pine flats, rocky forests, ledges, sandstone, limestone, or granite.
Elevation: 0–1200 m.

Distribution

Man., Ont., Sask., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

Castilleja coccinea usually has red bracts. Forms with white or yellow bracts have been named but are scattered across the range of the species. However, yellow-bracted forms become markedly more common in populations in the northern portion of the range, especially in the upper midwestern region. Populations of C. coccinea seem ephemeral, disappearing from one site after a few years and appearing in another. It is rare in much of the eastern portion of its range, and apparently is extirpated in Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Castilleja coccinea"
48 +, 46 +  and 24 +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
green +  and yellowish +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
pink +, yellow +  and white +
protuberant +
reduced +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
J. Mark Egger +, Peter F. Zika +, Barbara L. Wilson +, Richard E. Brainerd +  and Nick Otting +
(Linnaeus) Sprengel +
Bartsia coccinea +
Green (?) +, Reddish (?) +, Dull (?) +, Faint (?) +, Yellowish (?) +  and Whitish (?) +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
not +, leathery +  and fleshy +
white;yellow;white;yellow;orange;red;proximally greenish;brownish green +
3(-5)-lobed +, lanceolate +  and obovate +
2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br /> (2.8 cm28 mm <br />0.028 m <br />) +
2-lobed +, lobed +  and tubular +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br />) +
taprooted;fibrous-rooted or rhizomatous +
fleshy +  and woody +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
linear-lanceolate;oblong-lanceolate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
lateral +  and deeper +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
Painted-cup +  and red or scarlet paintbrush +
purple +, pink +, red +, orange +, yellow +, white +, green +  and pale greenish +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (3.1 cm31 mm <br />0.031 m <br />) +
Man. +, Ont. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
0–1200 m. +
spreading-hairy +  and glabrous +
2 +  and 1 +
indehiscent +, septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
Damp or wet meadows, roadsides, prairies, swamps, peatlands, ditches, thickets, dunes, jack pine flats, rocky forests, ledges, sandstone, limestone, or granite. +
stipitate-glandular +
axillary +  and terminal +
spiral +, whorled +, alternate +  and opposite +
brownish +  and green to sometimes +
deciduous +
basal +  and cauline +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
arising +, spreading-ascending +, spreading +  and ascending +
3 +, 2 +  and 4 +
oblong +  and triangular +
subequal +
3-7(-9)-lobed +, wavy +  and plane +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
campylotropous-like +
Flowering Jan–Sep. +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
20 +  and 100 +
trapezoidal +, oblong-ovoid +, pyramidal +  and ovoid +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
non-secund +  and secund +
elongate +
subequal +
branched +  and unbranched +
sprawling +  and prostrate +
aerial +  and subterranean +
erect +  and ascending +
not fleshy +
2-lobed +  and entire +
Castilleja ludoviciana +
Castilleja coccinea +
Castilleja +
species +
yellow +  and green +
shallow;deep +
reduced +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
biennial +  and annual +