Castilleja hyperborea

Pennell

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 86: 532. 1934.

Common names: Northern paintbrush
Synonyms: Castilleja kuschei Eastwood C. villosissima Pennell
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 614. Mentioned on page 574, 615.

Herbs, perennial, 0.7–2.6 dm; from a many-headed, short, woody caudex; with a taproot. Stems few, ascending, unbranched, sometimes branched, glabrate to sparsely hairy proximally, becoming densely hairy distally, proximal hairs appressed, white, short, soft, eglandular, distal hairs widely spreading to erect, white or yellowish, long to very long, soft, eglandular. Leaves green to sometimes redbrown or dull purplish, linear to linear-lanceolate, 1.5–4 cm, not fleshy, margins plane, sometimes ± wavy, involute, (0–) 3 (–5) -lobed, apex acute to acuminate; lobes linear or linear-lanceolate, laterals ± divaricate, often abruptly upcurved from plane of main leaf-blade, proximals usually 33–50% as long as leaf, apex acuminate to acute. Inflorescences 2–11 × 1–2.5 cm; bracts greenish or pale-yellow, rarely purplish or deep red, often with dull purplish veins on proximal bracts, or proximally greenish or pale-yellow, distally whitish, yellow, or orange-yellow, proximal sometimes linear-lanceolate, distal broadly lanceolate to oblong or obovate, (0–) 3–5 (–7) -lobed; lobes ascending to erect, linear to lanceolate, short to medium length, arising above mid length, proximal bract apex acute, distal obtuse, rounded, or truncate. Calyces colored as bracts, proximally often paler, usually yellow throughout, 10–20 mm; abaxial and adaxial clefts 7–14 mm, 40–50% of calyx length, deeper than laterals, lateral 0.5–1.5 mm, 5–15% of calyx length; lobes triangular, apex acute to rounded. Corollas slightly curved, 10–22 mm; tube 8–14 mm; teeth of abaxial lip sometimes slightly exserted, beak exserted or subequal; beak adaxially green to pale-yellow, 5–8 mm; abaxial lip deep yellow or green, reduced, forming a small pouch visible through front cleft, 3–5 mm, 50–75% as long as beak; teeth ascending to erect, white or yellow, 1 mm. 2n = 24.


Phenology: Flowering May–Aug(–Sep).
Habitat: Dry to mesic rocky tundra, slopes, ridges, barrens and meadows, openings in boreal forests, arctic to alpine.
Elevation: 0–2200 m.

Distribution

B.C., N.W.T., Yukon, Alaska, e Asia (Russian Far East)

Discussion

Castilleja hyperborea is widespread across boreal, alpine, and arctic habitats in western Canada and Alaska, extending into the Russian Far East. A rare form with light purple bracts was named as C. kuschei. Another form with particularly long hairs found in the Kluane Lake region of the southern Yukon was described as C. villosissima and is usually found on calcareous substrates.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"arising" is not a number.

... more about "Castilleja hyperborea"
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
green +, yellow +  and deep +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
purplish +, dull +  and redbrown +
Acute (?) +  and Rounded (?) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
J. Mark Egger +, Peter F. Zika +, Barbara L. Wilson +, Richard E. Brainerd +  and Nick Otting +
Pennell +
subequal +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
not +, leathery +  and fleshy +
orange-yellow;yellow;whitish;pale-yellow;gorange-yellow;yellow;whitish;pale-yellow;greenish;orange-yellow;yellow;whitish;pale-yellow;greenish;orange-yellow;yellow;whitish;pale-yellow;greenish;orange-yellow;yellow;whitish;pale-yellow;greenish;red;deep;purplish;pale-yellow;greenish;red;deep;purplish;pale-yellow;greenishish;red;deep;purplish;pale-yellow;greenish +
yellow +, paler +  and colored +
2-lobed +, lobed +  and tubular +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
taprooted;fibrous-rooted or rhizomatous +
fleshy +  and woody +
Northern paintbrush +
purple +, pink +, red +, orange +, yellow +, white +, green +  and pale greenish +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
(0-)3-5(-7)-lobed;broadly lanceolate;oblong or obovate +
yellowish +  and white +
truncate +, rounded +  and obtuse +
B.C. +, N.W.T. +, Yukon +, Alaska +  and e Asia (Russian Far East) +
0–2200 m. +
spreading-hairy +  and glabrous +
2 +  and 1 +
indehiscent +, septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
Dry to mesic rocky tundra, slopes, ridges, barrens and meadows, openings in boreal forests, arctic to alpine. +
much-branched +, unbranched +  and eglandular +
stipitate-glandular +
axillary +  and terminal +
spiral +, whorled +, alternate +  and opposite +
deciduous +
basal +  and cauline +
ascending +  and erect +
3 +, 2 +  and 4 +
triangular +, linear +  and lanceolate +
subequal +
purplish +, dull +  and redbrown +
acute +  and acuminate +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
campylotropous-like +
Flowering May–Aug(–Sep). +
linear-lanceolate +
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia +
20 +  and 100 +
trapezoidal +, oblong-ovoid +, pyramidal +  and ovoid +
non-secund +  and secund +
elongate +
subequal +
branched +  and unbranched +
sprawling +  and prostrate +
aerial +  and subterranean +
not fleshy +
2-lobed +  and entire +
Castilleja kuschei +  and C. villosissima +
Castilleja hyperborea +
Castilleja +
species +
yellow +  and white +
shallow;deep +
ascending +  and erect +
reduced +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +