Castilleja integra

A. Gray in W. H. Emory

Rep. U.S. Mex. Bound. 2(1): 119. 1859.

Common names: Entire-leaved or southwestern paintbrush
Synonyms: Castilleja elongata Pennell C. gloriosa Britton C. integra var. gloriosa (Britton) Cockerell
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 615. Mentioned on page 579, 610, 616, 636, 662.

Herbs, sometimes subshrubs, perennial, 0.9–5 (–10) dm; from a woody caudex; with a taproot or stout, branched roots. Stems solitary or few to several, erect to ascending, less commonly bent at base, unbranched, sometimes branched distally, hairs spreading to appressed, fairly short, soft and moderately dense, matted, unbranched, not quite obscuring surface. Leaves green to purplish, linear to lanceolate or narrowly oblong, (1–) 2–7 (–9) cm, not fleshy, margins plane, sometimes ± wavy, involute, 0-lobed distally, sometimes 3-lobed, apex acute to acuminate, sometimes rounded. Inflorescences 2–12 (–15) × 1.5–4 cm; bracts red to red-orange or orange throughout, sometimes crimson, cerise, pale salmon, or pale-yellow throughout, or proximally pale green to straw colored, distally colored as above, proximal sometimes narrowly lanceolate, others elliptic to narrowly elliptic, oblong, obovate, or oblanceolate, 0–3 (–5) -lobed; lobes ascending, lanceolate, short, arising at or above mid length, central lobe apex obtuse to rounded, lateral ones acute. Calyces colored as bracts, (18–) 21–35 (–38) mm; abaxial and adaxial clefts (6–) 9–16 (–18) mm, 25–33% of calyx length, deeper than laterals, lateral (2–) 4–14 (–16) mm, 10–15% of calyx length; lobes lanceolate or triangular, apex acute to rounded. Corollas straight or slightly curved, (21–) 25–45 (–50) mm; tube 17–30 (–33) mm; beak subequal to calyx or strongly exserted, adaxially green, (8–) 10–17 (–18) mm; abaxial lip deep green, reduced, usually visible in front cleft, 1–2.8 mm, 20% as long as beak; teeth incurved, green or yellow, 0.5–1.5 mm. 2n = 24, 48.


Phenology: Flowering (Jan–)Mar–Oct.
Habitat: Dry rocky slopes and flats, grasslands, open forests, ledges, road banks, valleys, subalpine.
Elevation: (600–)1000–3300 m.

Distribution

Ariz., Colo., N.Mex., Tex., Mexico (Chihuahua), Mexico (Coahuila), Mexico (Durango), Mexico (Nuevo León), Mexico (Sonora)

Discussion

Castilleja integra is widespread and common in the southwestern United States. It is important to Native Americans for dyes, ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a medicine. It is sometimes confused with C. lanata or C. miniata but has a distinctive combination of entire, narrow, strongly involute leaves, soft-tomentose pubescence of unbranched hairs, and usually entire bracts, sometimes with one pair of short lobes from the middle. The leaf margins of C. integra are usually plane, but some populations in the Chisos Mountains of Texas are wavy margined. These plants are on the higher slopes of the Chisos Mountains in montane thorn-oak vegetation, and they are also often taller and have longer, more frequently lobed leaves. These variant populations have been called C. elongata, and they deserve further study. Castilleja integra is typically a species of dry grasslands and open forests at moderate elevations. Occasional hybrids with C. linariifolia are known from Montrose County, Colorado.

The Castilleja elongata form of C. integra is in the Center for Plant Conservation’s National Collection of Endangered Plants.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Castilleja integra"
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.28 cm2.8 mm <br />0.0028 m <br />) +
Acute (?) +  and Rounded (?) +
J. Mark Egger +, Peter F. Zika +, Barbara L. Wilson +, Richard E. Brainerd +  and Nick Otting +
A. Gray in W. H. Emory +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
subequal +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
not +, leathery +  and fleshy +
colored;proximally pale green;straw colored +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (3.8 cm38 mm <br />0.038 m <br />) +
2-lobed +, lobed +  and tubular +
2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
taprooted;fibrous-rooted or rhizomatous +
fleshy +  and woody +
Entire-leaved or southwestern paintbrush +
4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
purple +, pink +, red +, orange +, yellow +, white +, green +  and pale greenish +
curved +  and straight +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
Ariz. +, Colo. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, Mexico (Chihuahua) +, Mexico (Coahuila) +, Mexico (Durango) +, Mexico (Nuevo León) +  and Mexico (Sonora) +
(600–)1000–3300 m. +
spreading-hairy +  and glabrous +
2 +  and 1 +
indehiscent +, septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
Dry rocky slopes and flats, grasslands, open forests, ledges, road banks, valleys, subalpine. +
spreading +  and appressed +
stipitate-glandular +
12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
axillary +  and terminal +
spiral +, whorled +, alternate +  and opposite +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
green +  and purplish +
deciduous +
basal +  and cauline +
linear;lanceolate or narrowly oblong +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
not fleshy +
arising +  and ascending +
3 +, 2 +  and 4 +
triangular +  and lanceolate +
subequal +
3-lobed +, 0-lobed +, wavy +  and plane +
acute;obtuse;rounded +
0-3(-5)-lobed;oblanceolate;obovate;oblanceolate;obovate;oblong;elliptic;elliptic to narrowly +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
campylotropous-like +
Flowering (Jan–)Mar–Oct. +
Rep. U.S. Mex. Bound. +
20 +  and 100 +
trapezoidal +, oblong-ovoid +, pyramidal +  and ovoid +
non-secund +  and secund +
elongate +
subequal +
branched +  and unbranched +
sprawling +  and prostrate +
aerial +  and subterranean +
erect +  and ascending +
not fleshy +
2-lobed +  and entire +
Castilleja elongata +, C. gloriosa +  and C. integra var. gloriosa +
Castilleja integra +
Castilleja +
species +
yellow +  and green +
shallow;deep +
reduced +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (3.3 cm33 mm <br />0.033 m <br />) +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
herb +  and subshrub +