Castilleja linariifolia

Bentham in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle

Prodr. 10: 532. 1846.

Common names: Wyoming or narrow-leaved or long-leaf paintbrush
IllustratedEndemic
Synonyms: Castilleja trainii Edwin
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 622. Mentioned on page 567, 581, 595, 596, 599, 603, 608, 616, 621, 636, 655, 657, 665.

Herbs, perennial, 1.8–10 (–20) dm; from a woody caudex; with a taproot or branching roots. Stems few-to-many, ascending to erect, much-branched, glabrous proximally, hairy distally, sometimes glabrous or hairy throughout, hairs sparse, sometimes dense, spreading to slightly retrorse, short to long, ± stiff, eglandular. Leaves ± yellow to gray-green, sometimes becoming ± purple, linear to narrowly lanceolate, (1–) 2–10 cm, not fleshy, rarely ± thickened and fleshy, margins plane, involute, 0–3 (–5) -lobed, apex acute or acuminate; lobes spreading, linear, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescences 4–20 × 2–7.5 cm; bracts red to red-orange throughout, sometimes pale green, yellow, magenta, pink-purple, or white throughout, or proximally pale greenish to straw colored, distally colored as above, lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate or narrowly oblong, 3 (–5) -lobed; lobes spreading to ascending, narrowly lanceolate to linear, shorter than central lobe, arising in proximal 1/3, apex obtuse to acuminate. Calyces proximally greenish, whitish, or yellowish, distally colored as bracts, 18–30 (–35) mm; abaxial clefts 10–20 (–22) mm, adaxial 2–6 (–12) mm, abaxial ca. 70% of calyx length, adaxial ca. 20–25% of calyx length, deeper than laterals, lateral 1.5–5 (–6) mm, 12–17% of calyx length; lobes curved slightly toward adaxial side, narrowly oblong to narrowly lanceolate, apex acute. Corollas often slightly curved, 25–45 mm; tube 11–22 (–25) mm; beak exserted, longer than calyx lobes, usually projecting through abaxial cleft; beak adaxially yellow-green or green, 9–21 (–24) mm; abaxial lip deep green, reduced, often visible in exserted sideways through abaxial calyx cleft, 0.5–3 mm, 10–15% as long as beak; teeth incurved, green or whitish, 5–2 (–3) mm. 2n = 24, 48.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Oct.
Habitat: Sagebrush steppes, grasslands, dry rocky slopes and flats, open forests, talus, lowlands to montane, occasionally subalpine.
Elevation: 600–3400 m.

Distribution

Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Nev., N.Mex., Oreg., Utah, Wyo.

Discussion

Castilleja linariifolia is widespread in the western United States and is important to Native Americans as a source of dyes and for medicinal and ceremonial purposes (D. E. Moerman 1998). It is the state flower of Wyoming. Castilleja linariifolia is closely associated with, and undoubtedly parasitic on, the roots of sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata. The bracts are usually red to red-orange, with uncommon yellow-bracted variants. On the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada in California, most populations have pink-purple to magenta bracts, and at least one population has almost pure white bracts. Plants associated with hot springs in the Ash Meadows area of Nye County, Nevada, are unusually tall and have somewhat fleshy leaves. Castilleja linariifolia stems are usually glabrous, but pubescent stems are sporadic across its range. However, in the Mt. Charleston area of the Spring Mountains, in southern Nevada, most plants are pubescent, ranging from an inconspicuous layer to a fairly dense and obvious indument. These plants have been called forma omnipubescens Pennell. Elsewhere, especially in central and northern Arizona, individuals with short-pubescent stems are intermingled with more typical plants. In addition, late-blooming forms associated with hot spring sites in the eastern Mojave Desert are particularly thick-stemmed and vigorous. Hybrids between C. linariifolia and C. scabrida are known from Garfield County, Utah. Castilleja linariifolia is parapatric with the similar C. wootonii in central New Mexico. Castilleja linariifolia is reported to hybridize with C. chromosa, C. flava, and C. miniata. A possible hybrid with C. septentrionalis was named C. ×cognata Greene.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Castilleja linariifolia"
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
lateral +  and deeper +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Acute (?) +, Obtuse (?) +  and Acuminate (?) +
J. Mark Egger +, Peter F. Zika +, Barbara L. Wilson +, Richard E. Brainerd +  and Nick Otting +
Bentham in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle +
2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
abaxial +  and exserted +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br />) +
not +, leathery +  and fleshy +
colored;proximally pale greenish;straw colored +
3(-5)-lobed +, lanceolate +  and narrowly lanceolate or narrowly oblong +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
colored +, yellowish +, whitish +  and greenish +
2-lobed +, lobed +  and tubular +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
taprooted;fibrous-rooted or rhizomatous +
fleshy +  and woody +
Wyoming or narrow-leaved or long-leaf paintbrush +
purple +, pink +, red +, orange +, yellow +, white +, green +  and pale greenish +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Mont. +, Nev. +, N.Mex. +, Oreg. +, Utah +  and Wyo. +
600–3400 m. +
spreading-hairy +  and glabrous +
2 +  and 1 +
indehiscent +, septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
Sagebrush steppes, grasslands, dry rocky slopes and flats, open forests, talus, lowlands to montane, occasionally subalpine. +
spreading +  and slightly retrorse +
stipitate-glandular +
short to long +
axillary +  and terminal +
spiral +, whorled +, alternate +  and opposite +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
less yellow +  and gray-green +
deciduous +
basal +  and cauline +
linear;narrowly lanceolate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
fleshy +  and not fleshy +
arising +, spreading +  and ascending +
3 +, 2 +  and 4 +
narrowly oblong +  and narrowly lanceolate +
subequal +
0-3(-5)-lobed +  and plane +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
campylotropous-like +
Flowering Apr–Oct. +
20 +  and 100 +
trapezoidal +, oblong-ovoid +, pyramidal +  and ovoid +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
non-secund +  and secund +
elongate +
subequal +
much-branched +
sprawling +  and prostrate +
aerial +  and subterranean +
ascending +  and erect +
not fleshy +
2-lobed +  and entire +
Castilleja trainii +
Castilleja linariifolia +
Castilleja +
species +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
whitish +  and green +
shallow;deep +
reduced +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +