Castilleja mexicana

(Hemsley) A. Gray

Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 21: 404. 1886.

Common names: Mexican paintbrush
Illustrated
Basionyms: Orthocarpus mexicanus Hemsley Biol. Cent.-Amer., Bot. 2: 463, plate 63A, figs. 1–6. 1882
Synonyms: Castilleja tortifolia Pennell
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 626. Mentioned on page 565, 569, 572, 573, 627, 657.

Herbs, annual or short-lived perennial, 0.6–3 dm; from a woody caudex; with a slender taproot. Stems solitary or few, erect to erect-ascending, sometimes slightly curved at base, branched at base or unbranched, hairs spreading, long, stiff to soft, mixed with shorter stipitate-glandular ones. Leaves brown or purplish, sometimes green, linear to narrowly oblong, 1–5 cm, not fleshy, margins wavy, mostly involute, to flat, 3–5-lobed, apex acute; lobes spreading, linear, apex acute to obtuse. Inflorescences 2–17 × 1.5–6.5 cm; bracts greenish throughout, narrowly lanceolate (ovate in outline), 3–5 (–7) -lobed; lobes spreading, linear to narrowly oblong, long, arising from 1/3–2/3 blade length, wavy-margined, apex rounded or obtuse to acute. Calyces proximally brownish green, purplish, or green, lobes tipped with same color as bracts, 18–28 mm; abaxial and adaxial clefts 6–14 mm, 33–50% of calyx length, deeper than laterals, lateral 1.5–6 mm, 8–20% of calyx length; lobes lanceolate to narrowly triangular, abaxials wider than adaxials, apex acute. Corollas straight proximally, conspicuously decurved distally, 35–60 mm; tube 26–46 mm; abaxial lip, beak, and majority of tube exserted; beak yellow to yellowish green, sometimes purplish-tipped or drying pinkish, 9–15 mm; abaxial lip light yellow to whitish, prominent, not inflated, 4–8 mm, 50–75% as long as beak; teeth spreading-ascending, yellowish, 3–6 mm. 2n = 24.


Phenology: Flowering Feb–Oct.
Habitat: Dry rocky slopes, grasslands, pinyon-juniper stands.
Elevation: 1200–2100 m.

Distribution

Tex., Mexico (Aguascalientes), Mexico (Chihuahua), Mexico (Coahuila), Mexico (Durango), Mexico (Nuevo León), Mexico (San Luis Potosí), Mexico (Tamaulipas), Mexico (Zacatecas)

Discussion

Castilleja mexicana occurs in the northern third of Mexico and reaches the flora area only in southwestern Texas. Its conspicuous corollas can be either yellow or, less commonly, white. In both cases, the flowers turn soft pink-purple with age. Texas populations of this species are yellow flowered, and the white-flowered morph appears to occur only in northeastern Mexico. There is some indication of additional morphological differences between these color morphs that may justify varietal segregation. Castilleja mexicana is sometimes confused with the closely related C. sessiliflora, due to their conspicuous, distally curved, usually strongly exserted corollas, but the two species remain distinct.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"arising" is not a number.

... more about "Castilleja mexicana"
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
light yellow +  and whitish +
not inflated +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
Acute (?) +  and Obtuse (?) +
J. Mark Egger +, Peter F. Zika +, Barbara L. Wilson +, Richard E. Brainerd +  and Nick Otting +
(Hemsley) A. Gray +
Orthocarpus mexicanus +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
not +, leathery +  and fleshy +
3-5(-7)-lobed +  and lanceolate +
green +, purplish +  and brownish green +
2-lobed +, lobed +  and tubular +
taprooted;fibrous-rooted or rhizomatous +
fleshy +  and woody +
Mexican paintbrush +
purple +, pink +, red +, orange +, yellow +, white +, green +  and pale greenish +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
Tex. +, Mexico (Aguascalientes) +, Mexico (Chihuahua) +, Mexico (Coahuila) +, Mexico (Durango) +, Mexico (Nuevo León) +, Mexico (San Luis Potosí) +, Mexico (Tamaulipas) +  and Mexico (Zacatecas) +
1200–2100 m. +
spreading-hairy +  and glabrous +
2 +  and 1 +
indehiscent +, septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
Dry rocky slopes, grasslands, pinyon-juniper stands. +
stipitate-glandular +
axillary +  and terminal +
spiral +, whorled +, alternate +  and opposite +
green +, purplish +  and brown +
deciduous +
basal +  and cauline +
linear;narrowly oblong +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
not fleshy +
wavy-margined +
3 +, 2 +  and 4 +
lanceolate +  and narrowly triangular +
subequal +
3-5-lobed +, mostly involute +  and flat +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
campylotropous-like +
Flowering Feb–Oct. +
Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts +
20 +  and 100 +
trapezoidal +, oblong-ovoid +, pyramidal +  and ovoid +
stipitate-glandular +
Illustrated +
non-secund +  and secund +
elongate +
subequal +
sprawling +  and prostrate +
aerial +  and subterranean +
erect +  and erect-ascending +
not fleshy +
2-lobed +  and entire +
Castilleja tortifolia +
Castilleja mexicana +
Castilleja +
species +
shallow;deep +
spreading-ascending +
reduced +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br /> (4.6 cm46 mm <br />0.046 m <br />) +
perennial +, short-lived +  and annual +