Castilleja miniata var. dixonii

(Fernald) A. Nelson & J. F. Macbride

Bot. Gaz. 65: 70. 1918.

Common names: Dixon’s paintbrush
Endemic
Basionyms: Castilleja dixonii Fernald Erythea 7: 122. 1899
Synonyms: C. miniata subsp. dixonii (Fernald) Kartesz
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 628. Mentioned on page 578, 582, 624, 627, 629.

Herbs 1.2–4.7 dm; with a taproot or with slender, branched roots from decumbent proximal stems. Stems glabrous or glabrate proximally, sometimes sparsely hairy distally, hairs spreading to ± retrorse or appressed, short, soft, rarely mixed with short-stipitate-glandular ones near inflorescence. Leaves spreading to ascending, narrowly lanceolate to oblong, sometimes narrowly elliptic to ovate, thin and not fleshy or often slightly to moderately thickened and slightly fleshy, margins plane, flat to slightly involute, 0 (–5) -lobed, apex acute to obtuse or rounded, sometimes acuminate. Bracts distally scarlet, red, orange-red, or light red, sometimes with medial region ± darkened, 0–5-lobed; lobe apex obtuse to rounded or acute. Calyces 17–28 mm; abaxial and adaxial clefts 7–15 mm, 35–55% of calyx length, abaxial slightly deeper than adaxial or subequal, lateral 2–7 mm, 15–30% of calyx length; lobes linear or narrowly lanceolate to narrowly triangular, apex acute, sometimes obtuse. Corollas 25–46 mm; beak 11–25 mm, adaxial surface ± conspicuously puberulent; abaxial lip green, 1–2 mm, 5–10% as long as beak. 2n = 96, 144.


Phenology: Flowering May–Sep.
Habitat: Rocky islands, moist sand, vegetated dunes, sea bluffs, headlands, coastal scrub, upper margin of tidal flats.
Elevation: 0–200 m.

Discussion

Variety dixonii is found on the outer coast, from Clatsop County, Oregon, to Vancouver Island and the mainland shore of southwestern British Columbia, as well as along the shores and some of the islands of Puget Sound. Variety dixonii can be difficult to separate morphologically from var. miniata, but var. dixonii occurs strictly in low-elevation, sandy, coastal habitats and differs somewhat inconsistently in a number of minor traits, especially in the leaves. Variety miniata usually occurs at considerably higher elevations in this region. Variety dixonii is also very similar to, if not conspecific with, Castilleja litoralis, which has a more or less shorter corollas and corolla beaks and other minor differences. The corolla beaks of var. dixonii have more or less longer hairs and are more obviously puberulent. It is tempting to merge C. litoralis into var. dixonii, especially since both entities are known to be high polyploids, but this is premature. Despite the attention of many botanists, the species of Castilleja along the Pacific coast are still in need of comprehensive study and delimitation. Also see the comments under 62. C. litoralis.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"thin" is not a number."medium" is not a number.

0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
ascending +  and incurved +
not inflated +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
J. Mark Egger +, Peter F. Zika +, Barbara L. Wilson +, Richard E. Brainerd +  and Nick Otting +
(Fernald) A. Nelson & J. F. Macbride +
Castilleja dixonii +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
not +, leathery +  and fleshy +
light red;orange-red;light red;orange-red;red;scarlet +
0-5-lobed +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
2-lobed +, lobed +  and tubular +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (2.8 cm28 mm <br />0.028 m <br />) +
taprooted;fibrous-rooted or rhizomatous +
fleshy +  and woody +
0-5(-7)-lobed +, lanceolate +  and oblong-ovate +
Dixon’s paintbrush +
purple +, pink +, red +, orange +, yellow +, white +, green +  and pale greenish +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (4.6 cm46 mm <br />0.046 m <br />) +
B.C. +, Oreg. +  and Wash. +
0–200 m. +
spreading-hairy +  and glabrous +
2 +  and 1 +
indehiscent +, septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
Rocky islands, moist sand, vegetated dunes, sea bluffs, headlands, coastal scrub, upper margin of tidal flats. +
much-branched +, unbranched +  and eglandular +
spreading +  and more or less retrorse or appressed +
stipitate-glandular +
short to long +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (22 cm220 mm <br />0.22 m <br />) +
axillary +  and terminal +
spiral +, whorled +, alternate +  and opposite +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (9.5 cm95 mm <br />0.095 m <br />) +
green +  and purple +
deciduous +
basal +  and cauline +
sometimes narrowly elliptic;ovate +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
fleshy +, often slightly +  and not fleshy +
above mid lobes +, arising +, erect +  and ascending-spreading +
3 +, 2 +  and 4 +
narrowly lanceolate +  and narrowly triangular +
subequal +
0(-5)-lobed +, flat +  and slightly involute +
short-stipitate-glandular +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
campylotropous-like +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Flowering May–Sep. +
slender +
20 +  and 100 +
trapezoidal +, oblong-ovoid +, pyramidal +  and ovoid +
non-secund +  and secund +
elongate +
subequal +
branched +  and rooting +
creeping +  and decumbent +
aerial +  and subterranean +
erect +  and ascending +
not fleshy +
2-lobed +  and entire +
C. miniata subsp. dixonii +
Castilleja miniata var. dixonii +
Castilleja miniata +
variety +
white +  and green +
shallow;deep +
erect +  and incurved +
reduced +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br />) +