Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2(2): 158. 1832.
Herbs, perennial, (0.6–) 1–4 (–5) dm; from a woody caudex; with a taproot or stout, branched roots. Stems several or many, erect or ascending, unbranched except for short, leafy axillary shoots, glabrate proximally, hairy distally, hairs sparse, spreading, ± matted, long, soft, minute-glandular. Leaves green or gray-green to purple-tinged or deep purple, often blackening on drying, narrowly to broadly lanceolate or elliptic, rarely linear, 1.5–5 cm, not fleshy, margins plane, sometimes ± wavy, flat, (0–) 3–9-lobed, apex acute to acuminate or obtuse; lobes spreading or ascending, linear, sometimes lanceolate, much narrower than terminal lobe, evenly spaced, short, apex acute. Inflorescences 2–16 × 1–3.5 cm; bracts proximally greenish, dull, deep purple, or reddish purple, distally pink, pink-purple, magenta, deep rose, crimson, cream, or white, sometimes red, pale orange, or red-orange, lanceolate to broadly elliptic or ovate, 3–7-lobed; lobes spreading to ascending, linear, lanceolate, or lanceolate-acuminate, short to medium length, arising at or near mid length, apex obtuse to acute, central lobes sometimes rounded. Calyces colored as bracts, 12–28 mm; abaxial and adaxial clefts 6–15 mm, 40–70% of calyx length, deeper than laterals, lateral 1–8 mm, 10–35% of calyx length; lobes narrowly to broadly triangular, sometimes distally expanded and flaring, petaloid, apex obtuse or acute, sometimes rounded. Corollas straight or slightly curved, 12–30 mm; tube 8–19 mm; beak exserted or subequal to calyx, adaxially green-yellowish or red, 5.5–11 mm; abaxial lip green, brown, or yellow, sometimes purple, reduced, slightly or not inflated and pouched, 1–3 mm, 20–45% as long as beak; teeth erect, green, white, yellow, pink, or red, 0.5–2 mm. 2n = 24, 48.
Alta., B.C., Yukon, Alaska, Oreg., Wash.
Varieties 4 (4 in the flora).
Castilleja parviflora is a complex, geographically widespread, and often misunderstood species ranging from southeastern Alaska through much of British Columbia, southwestern Yukon, and the Rocky Mountains of extreme western Alberta and southward in the Cascade Range to central Oregon.
|1||Corollas (18–)20–30 mm; calyces 20–28 mm; leaves (0–)3(–5)-lobed; Oregon, Washington.||Castilleja parviflora var. oreopola|
|1||Corollas 12–20(–25) mm; calyces 12–20(–28) mm; leaves (0–)3–9-lobed; Washington to Alaska, Alberta, and Yukon.||> 2|
|2||Bracts distally white to cream, sometimes suffused with pink to purple; herbs 0.6–2.7 dm; n Cascade Range, Washington and s British Columbia.||Castilleja parviflora var. albida|
|2||Bracts distally pink-purple, magenta, deep rose, or crimson, rarely white; herbs 1.2–5 dm; Olympic Mountains, Washington, w Canada, se Alaska.||> 3|
|3||Leaves (3–)5–9-lobed; corolla beaks 5.5–7 mm; Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Alaska.||Castilleja parviflora var. parviflora|
|3||Leaves (0–)3(–5)-lobed; corolla beaks (5.5–)7–9(–11) mm; s Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Olympic Mountains, Washington.||Castilleja parviflora var. olympica|
"arising" is not a number.