Ceanothus americanus

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 1: 195. 1753.

Common names: New Jersey-tea Céanothe d'Amérique
IllustratedEndemic
Synonyms: Ceanothus americanus var. intermedius (Pursh) Torrey & A. Gray C. americanus var. pitcheri Torrey & A. Gray C. intermedius Pursh
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 12. Treatment on page 82. Mentioned on page 78, 81, 83.

Shrubs, deciduous, 0.8–1.5 m. Stems erect to ascending, not rooting at nodes; branchlets usually green, sometimes reddish-brown, not thorn-tipped, round or slightly angled in cross-section, flexible, puberulent, glabrescent. Leaves: petiole 4–13 mm; blade not aromatic, flat, ovate to ovate-oblong, (20–) 30–100 × 15–64 mm, herbaceous, not resinous, base rounded, margins serrate to serrulate, teeth 54–130+, apex usually acuminate to acute, rarely obtuse, abaxial surface pale green, puberulent, especially on veins, adaxial surface dark green, dull, puberulent, especially on major veins; 3-veined from base. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, paniclelike, cylindric to conic, 3–14 cm. Flowers: sepals, petals, and nectary white. Capsules 4–6 mm wide, not lobed; valves ± rugulose, crested. 2n = 24.


Phenology: Flowering May–Aug.
Habitat: Open areas in forests and woodlands, abandoned fields, sandhills, prairies.
Elevation: 80–300 m.

Distribution

V12 880-distribution-map.jpg

Ont., Que., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

Ceanothus americanus is closely related to C. herbaceus and C. sanguineus. Ceanothus herbaceus differs in having narrower leaf blades, short peduncles, and globose to hemispheric inflorescences. Ceanothus sanguineus, which occurs in western North America (except for a disjunct population in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan), differs by smooth fruit valves and inflorescences borne on stems older than the current year. Three varieties, var. americanus, var. intermedius, and var. pitcheri, have been recognized within C. americanus, based on leaf shape and indumentum (M. L. Fernald 1950; H. A. Gleason and A. Cronquist 1991), but N. C. Coile (1988) provided evidence for clinal intergradation among them.

An infusion of Ceanothus americanus leaves or bark was used widely by Native Americans as an anti-inflammatory and to treat gastrointestinal ailments (D. E. Moerman 1998). The dried leaves were used as a tea substitute during the American Revolution (N. L. Britton and A. Brown 1896–1898, vol. 2).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"thin" is not a number.

... more about "Ceanothus americanus"
perigynous +  and epigynous +
Clifford L. Schmidt† +  and Dieter H. Wilken +
Linnaeus +
rounded +
3-veined +  and veined +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
not resinous +
not gland-dotted +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
3[-5]-veined +  and pinnate +
spinulose +, spinose +, serrate +  and entire +
denticulate +, dentate +, crenulate +, crenate +  and serrulate +
not aromatic +
ovate;ovate-oblong +
15mm;64mm +
not thorn-tipped +
glabrescent +  and puberulent +
angled +  and round +
not lobed +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
New Jersey-tea +  and Céanothe d'Amérique +
Ont. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
80–300 m. +
Open areas in forests and woodlands, abandoned fields, sandhills, prairies. +
free +  and adnate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
axillary +  and terminal +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
cylindric +  and conic +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
serrate to serrulate +
intrastaminal +
superior +  and inferior +
not fleshy +
perigynous +  and epigynous +
adnate +  and distinct +
6 +  and 5 +
Clawed (?) +, Obovate (?) +  and Spatulate (?) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
Flowering May–Aug. +
2-4-carpellate +
pink +, usually white +  and cream blue or purple +
distinct +
spreading +  and incurved +
6 +  and 5 +
keeled;lanceolate;deltate +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
not rooting +
erect +  and ascending +
3-veined +  and veined +
Ceanothus americanus var. intermedius +, C. americanus var. pitcheri +  and C. intermedius +
Ceanothus americanus +
Ceanothus subg. Ceanothus +
species +
paniclelike +  and racemelike +
gland-tipped +
rugulose +
crested +
unarmed +  and armed +
polygamous +, dioecious +  and synoecious +