Chamaecyparis thyoides

(Linnaeus) Britton

Prelim. Cat. 71. 1888.

Common names: Atlantic white-cedar southern white-cedar
IllustratedEndemic
Basionym: Cupressus thyoides Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 1003. 1753
Synonyms: Chamaecyparis henryae Li H. L. Chamaecyparis thyoides subsp. henryae (Li H. L.) E. Murray Chamaecyparis thyoides var. henryae (Li H. L.) Little
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 2.

Trees to 20 (–28) m; trunk to 0.8 (–1.5) m diam. Bark dark brownish red, less than 3 cm thick, irregularly furrowed and ridged. Branchlet sprays fan-shaped. Leaves of branchlets to 2 mm, apex acute to acuminate, bases of facial leaves often overlapped by apices of subtending facial leaves; glands usually present, circular. Pollen cones 2–4 mm, dark-brown; pollen-sacs yellow. Seed-cones maturing and opening the first-year, 4–9 mm broad, glaucous, bluish purple to reddish-brown, not notably resinous; scales 5–7. Seeds 1–2 per scale, 2–3 mm, wing narrower than body.


Habitat: Bogs and swamps of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts (primarily Coastal Plain)
Elevation: 0–500 m

Distribution

V2 241-distribution-map.gif

Ala., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Maine, Md., Mass., Miss., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Pa., R.I., S.C., Va.

Discussion

Li H. L. (1962) segregated some populations at the extreme southwestern limit of the species in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi as Chamaecyparis henryae based on smoother bark, less flattened branchlets, lighter yellowish green foliage, steeper angle of leaf appression to the stem, more prominently keeled but less glandular leaves, and slightly larger cones, seeds, and seed wings. These features were contrasted with phenotypes found in the "northern and mid-Atlantic" populations, and Li proposed a relationship to C. nootkatensis rather than to C. thyoides. Preliminary comparison of herbarium material from the Southeast (including populations in Georgia and Florida) leads to retention of C. thyoides as a subtly variable complex with the imperfectly differentiated C. henryae at one end of the range.

A. J. Rehder (1949) listed, with bibliographic citations, 30 published varieties and forms best considered as cultivars.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Chamaecyparis thyoides"
Acute (?) +  and Acuminate (?) +
David C. Michener +
(Linnaeus) Britton +
long-lived +
red +  and dark brownish +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
Cupressus thyoides +
rhombic +  and terete +
inconspicuous +  and undifferentiated +
Atlantic white-cedar +  and southern white-cedar +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
Ala. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Miss. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +  and Va. +
0–500 m +
Bogs and swamps of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts (primarily Coastal Plain) +
decurrent +  and scale-like +
petioled +, sessile +, twisted +  and simple +
overlapping +  and opposite +
persisting +
3 (?) +  and 5 (?) +
scale-like +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
spheric;oblong +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Prelim. Cat. +
fibrous;woody +
peltate +  and complex +
cuneate +  and oblong +
fleshy +  and woody +
overlapping +
persistent +
basifixed +
1 +  and 2 +
bluish purple;reddish-brown +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
1 +  and 2 +
lenticular +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
flattened +  and fan--shaped +
Chamaecyparis henryae +, Chamaecyparis thyoides subsp. henryae +  and Chamaecyparis thyoides var. henryae +
Chamaecyparis thyoides +
Chamaecyparis +
species +
flattened +, angled +  and terete +
asymmetric +  and symmetric +
narrower +