Chamaelirium luteum

(Linnaeus) A. Gray

Manual, 503. 1848.

Common names: Blazing-star devil’s-bit fairy-wand rattlesnake-root
IllustratedEndemic
Basionym: Veratrum luteum Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 1044. 1753
Synonyms: Chamaelirium carolinianum Willdenow Chamaelirium obovale Small
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 26. Treatment on page 69. Mentioned on page 65, 68.

Staminate plants 5–20-leaved, 1.5–3.5 dm. Pistillate plants 15–50-leaved, 3–6 dm, 1.5 m in fruit. Leaf-blades spatulate to oblanceolate, 5–20 × 1.5–6 cm, apex obtuse, tapering proximally to broad petiole, 4–6 cm; distal blades oblanceolate to linear, 3–8 × 1–1.5 cm. Staminate flowers divergent, white; tepals 3–4 mm; filaments dimorphic, the outer longer; anthers white, 0.5 mm; pistils absent; pedicel 2–5 mm. Pistillate flowers ascending, white; tepals 2–3 mm; staminodes present; ovary elliptic to obovate; styles 1.5–2 mm; stigmas sessile. Capsules ovoid-oblong, 7–14 × 5–6 mm. Seeds reddish-brown, 1.8–2 mm; 5–6 mm (including winglike aril).


Phenology: Flowering late spring–summer.
Habitat: Moist meadows, thickets, rich wooded slopes, and coves
Elevation: 0–1100 m

Distribution

V26 47-distribution-map.jpg

Ont., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., S.C., Tenn., Va., W.Va.

Discussion

Chamaelirium is rare in southern Ontario (J. H. Soper 1962; D. J. White et al. 1982) and quite local in several eastern states. The flowers turn yellow on drying, hence the specific name. The roots, called “starwort” or “unicorn root,” are used medicinally.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"thicker" is not a number.

... more about "Chamaelirium luteum"
oblong-oblanceolate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +
Tapering (?) +  and Obtuse (?) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
Frederick H. Utech +
(Linnaeus) A. Gray +
spatulate;oblanceolate +
whorled +, opposite +  and alternate +
dilated +
Veratrum luteum +
reticulate-veined +  and parallel-veined +
sheathing +  and involucrate +
tunicate +  and scaly +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
ovoid-oblong +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
linear;lanceolate +
Blazing-star +, devil’s-bit +, fairy-wand +  and rattlesnake-root +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
Ont. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Ky. +, La. +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Va. +  and W.Va. +
0–1100 m +
flattened +
pistillate +  and staminate +
bisexual +  and unisexual +
capsular +  and spiciform +
loculicidal +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (35 cm350 mm <br />0.35 m <br />) +
membranaceous +  and leathery +
Moist meadows, thickets, rich wooded slopes, and coves +
spiciform +  and ebracteate +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
evergreen +  and persistent +
reduced +
entire +  and minutely undulate +
elliptic;obovate +
many;several +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
zygomorphic +  and actinomorphic +
Flowering late spring–summer. +
contractile +
fleshy +  and fibrous +
wind-distributed +
2 +  and 4 +
elliptic +  and linear-oblong +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
adnate +  and free +
staminodial +
hollow +  and simple +
persistent +
erect +  and nodding +
1 +  and several +
papillate +
persistent +
distinct +
linear-clavate +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
Chamaelirium carolinianum +  and Chamaelirium obovale +
Chamaelirium luteum +
Chamaelirium +
species +
yellow;white;greenish white +
persistent +
distinct +
ascending +  and spreading +
linear-spatulate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
sepaloid +  and petaloid +
narrower +
15-50-leaved +, pistillate +, 5-20-leaved +  and staminate +
3 +  and 2 +