Cirsium arvense

(Linnaeus) Scopoli

Fl. Carniol. ed. 2, 2: 126. 1772.

Common names: Canada or creeping or field thistle chardon du Canada ou des champs cirse des champs
Introduced
Basionym: Serratula arvensis Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 820. 1753
Synonyms: Breea arvensis (Linnaeus) Lessing Carduus arvensis (Linnaeus) Robson Cirsium arvense var. argenteum (Peyer ex Vest) Fiori Cirsium arvense var. horridum Wimmer & Grabowski Cirsium arvense var. integrifolium Wimmer & Grabowski Cirsium arvense var. mite Wimmer & Grabowski Cirsium arvense var. vestitum Wimmer & Grabowski Cirsium incanum Cirsium setosum
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 19. Treatment on page 109. Mentioned on page 95, 96, 97, 102, 110.

Perennials, dioecious or nearly so, 30–120 (–200) cm; colonial from deep-seated creeping roots producing adventitious-buds. Stems 1–many, erect, glabrous to appressed gray-tomentose; branches 0–many, ascending. Leaves: blades oblong to elliptic, 3–30 × 1–6 cm, margins plane to revolute, entire and spinulose, dentate, or shallowly to deeply pinnatifid, lobes well separated, lance-oblong to triangular-ovate, spinulose to few-toothed or few-lobed near base, main spines 1–7 mm, abaxial faces glabrous to densely gray-tomentose, adaxial green, glabrous to thinly tomentose; basal absent at flowering, petioles narrowly winged, bases tapered; principal larger cauline proximally winged-petiolate, distally sessile, well distributed, gradually reduced, not decurrent; distal cauline becoming bractlike, entire, toothed, or lobed, spinulose or not. Heads 1–many, borne singly or in corymbiform or paniculiform arrays at tips of main-stem and branches. Peduncles 0.2–7 cm. Involucres ovoid in flower, ± campanulate in fruit, 1–2 × 1–2 cm, arachnoid tomentose, ± glabrate. Phyllaries in 6–8 series, strongly imbricate, (usually purple-tinged), ovate (outer) to linear (inner), abaxial faces with narrow glutinous ridge, outer and middle appressed, entire, apices ascending to spreading, spines 0–1 mm (fine); apices of inner phyllaries flat, ± flexuous, margins entire to minutely erose or ciliolate. Corollas purple (white or pink); staminate 12–18 mm, (remaining longer than pappus when head fully mature), tubes 8–11 mm, throats 1–1.5 mm, lobes 3–5 mm; pistillate 14–20 mm, (overtopped by pappi in fruit), tubes 10–15 mm, throats ca. 1 mm, lobes 2–3 mm; style tips 1–2 mm. Cypselae brown, 2–4 mm, apical collar not differentiated; pappi 13–32 mm, exceeding corollas. 2n = 34.


Phenology: Flowering summer (Jun–Oct).
Habitat: Disturbed sites, fields, pastures, roadsides, forest openings
Elevation: 0–2600 m

Distribution

V19-53-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; Greenland, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon, Ala., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., native, Eurasia

Discussion

Cirsium arvense is one of the most economically important agricultural weeds in the world. It was introduced to North America in the 1600s and soon was recognized as a problem weed. Weed control legislation against the species was passed by the Vermont legislature in 1795 (R. J. Moore 1975). Canada thistle is now listed as a noxious weed in most areas where it occurs. It has very high seed production, and the runner roots readily survive the fragmentation that accompanies cultivation.

Numerous variants of Cirsium arvense have been named based upon such features as pubescence, extent of leaf division, and spininess. Although extreme variants can be strikingly different, they are connected by such a web of intermediates that there seems to be little value in according any of them formal taxonomic recognition.

Lower Taxa

None.

"fine" is not a number.

... more about "Cirsium arvense"
middle +  and outer +
glabrous +  and densely gray-tomentose +
glabrous +  and thinly tomentose +
short-tailed +
spineless +  and twisted +
dentate +, entire +  and spine-tipped +
ascending +  and spreading +
innermost +
scarious +
not differentiated +
paniculiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
David J. Keil +
(Linnaeus) Scopoli +
tapered +
Serratula arvensis +
compound +  and simple +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
oblong;elliptic +
1cm;6cm +
10-nerved or 20-nerved +  and rugose +
tawny +  and white +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
Canada or creeping or field thistle +, chardon du Canada ou des champs +  and cirse des champs +
white +  and pink red yellow or purple +
compressed +  and ovoid +
fertile +  and bisexual +
lobed +, toothed +, entire +  and bractlike +
Greenland +, St. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.W.T. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Ala. +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +, native +  and Eurasia +
0–2600 m +
gray-canescent +  and glabrous +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Disturbed sites, fields, pastures, roadsides, forest openings +
in corymbiform or paniculiform arrays +  and singly +
indeterminate +
each +  and sessile +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
glabrate +, tomentose +  and arachnoid +
campanulate;ovoid +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +  and basal +
lance-oblong +  and triangular-ovate spinulose +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
entire +  and minutely erose +
spinulose +  and entire +
dentate or +  and shallowly deeply pinnatifid +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br /> (3.2 cm32 mm <br />0.032 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
Flowering summer (Jun–Oct). +
middle +  and outer +
weakly to strongly +
papillate +  and smooth +
sessile +  and winged-petiolate +
Fl. Carniol. ed. +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
flat;convex +
moore1975a +
glutinous +
deep-seated +
tawny;white +
setiform +  and plumose +
exalbuminous +
subequal +
Introduced +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
spiny-winged +, simple +  and branched +
1 +  and many +
appendaged +  and truncate +
dilated +  and swollen +
enlarged +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
Breea arvensis +, Carduus arvensis +, Cirsium arvense var. argenteum +, Cirsium arvense var. horridum +, Cirsium arvense var. integrifolium +, Cirsium arvense var. mite +, Cirsium arvense var. vestitum +, Cirsium incanum +  and Cirsium setosum +
Cirsium arvense +
species +
cylindric +
expanded +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
bristly-dentate to coarsely +
slender +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
120 cm1,200 mm <br />1.2 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +
nearly +  and dioecious +
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
tree +, vine +, shrub +  and subshrub +