Corylus cornuta subsp. cornuta

Common names: Beaked hazel noisetier &agrave long bec
EndemicIllustrated
Synonyms: Corylus cornuta var. megaphylla Victorin & J. Rousseau Corylus rostrata
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 3.

Shrubs, open spreading, to (4–) 6 m. Bark light-brown, smooth. Branches ascending; twigs glabrous to sparsely pubescent, without glandular-hairs. Winter buds containing inflorescences ovoid, 3–5 × 3–4 mm, apex acute. Leaves: petiole glabrous to moderately pubescent, without glandular-hairs. Leaf-blade ovate to obovate or narrowly elliptic, often nearly angular and lobulate near apex, 5–12 × 3.5–9 cm, base narrowly cordate to narrowly rounded, margins coarsely and often irregularly doubly serrate, apex usually distinctly acuminate; surfaces abaxially glabrous to moderately pubescent, usually pubescent on major veins and in vein-axils. Inflorescences: staminate catkins usually in clusters of 2–3, 4.5–6 × 0.5–0.8 cm; peduncles mostly 0.5–2 mm. Nuts in clusters of 2–6; involucral tubular beak long, narrow, 2–3 (–4) times length of nuts, densely bristly. 2n = 22, 28.


Phenology: Flowering very early spring.
Habitat: Moist to dry roadsides, edges of woods, fencerows, waste places, and thickets, or as understory in open woodlands
Elevation: 100–500 m

Distribution

V3 599-distribution-map.gif

St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Ala., Colo., Conn., Ga., Idaho, Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.

Discussion

Like Corylus americana Walter, the beaked hazel (C. cornuta subsp. cornuta) is a weedy shrub and is sometimes considered a pest in carefully managed northern forests. The fruits are similar to those of C. americana, except that the surrounding bracts are connate into a long, narrow, tubular beak. Vegetative individuals of C. cornuta subsp. cornuta can be distinguished from C. americana by the absence of glandular hairs on the petioles and young twigs.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"lengthened" is not a number.

Acuminate (?) +  and Acute (?) +
3.5cm;12cm +
John J. Furlow +
Marshall +
tanniferous +  and furrowed +
light-brown +
narrowly cordate +  and narrowly rounded +
involucral +
2-3(-4) times length of nuts +
tubular +
extended +
deciduous +
expanded +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
erect +  and pendulous +
cylindric +  and elongate +
reduced +  and expanding +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
Beaked hazel +, noisetier &agrave +  and long bec +
multibracteate +
St. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Ga. +, Idaho +, Iowa +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +  and Wyo. +
100–500 m +
pistillate +  and staminate +
reduced +  and small +
membranaceous +
compressed +, nearly globose +  and ovoid +
tiny;moderately large +
Moist to dry roadsides, edges of woods, fencerows, waste places, and thickets, or as understory in open woodlands +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (?) +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
angular +  and elliptic +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
thin-walled +
concealed +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and moderately pubescent +
Flowering very early spring. +
2(-3)-carpellate +
Arbust. Amer., +
1-seeded +  and 2-winged +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
nearly +  and distinct +
expanding +
pubescent;abaxially glabrous;moderately pubescent +
Corylus cornuta var. megaphylla +  and Corylus rostrata +
Corylus cornuta subsp. cornuta +
Corylus cornuta +
subspecies +
short-to-elongate +
glabrous +  and sparsely pubescent +
differentiated +
tanniferous +
nearly white +  and light-brown +
fine +  and hard +