Coryphantha chlorantha

(Engelmann) Britton & Rose

Cact. 4: 43. 1923.

Endemic
Basionym: Mammillaria chlorantha Engelmann in J. T. Rothrock, Rep. U.S. Geogr. Surv., Wheeler, 127. 1878
Synonyms: Coryphantha vivipara var. buoflama P. C. Fischer Coryphantha vivipara var. deserti (Engelmann) W. T. Marshall Escobaria deserti (Nuttall) Buxbaum Escobaria vivipara var. deserti (Engelmann) D. R. Hunt
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Treatment on page 234. Mentioned on page 223, 235.

Plants usually unbranched (rarely to 12 branches), usually most protruding above ground level, stiff and strictly erect, densely covered with spines. Roots diffuse or short taproots, largest roots basally less than 1/5 of stem diam. Stems spheric to short cylindric, 3.5–15 × 3.5–9.5 cm; tubercles 9–14 × 4–7 mm, stiff; areolar glands absent; parenchyma not mucilaginous; druses in pith and cortex sporadic, some giant, to 1 mm, lenticular; pith 1/3–1/2 of lesser stem diam.; medullary vascular system conspicuous, diffuse, present even in immature plants. Spines 18–41 per areole, lightly pigmented, white to pale pinkish gray (varying geographically), brightest when fresh, weathering to gray, dark tips present on all or all but smallest spines; radial spines (12–) 15–33 per areole, 7.5–16.5 (–19) × 0.1–0.4 mm; subcentral spines 1–7 often present adaxially; outer central spines 1–11 per areole; inner central spines (0–) 1 (–2) per areole, porrect or ascending (other central spines usually not or weakly appressed), in bird’s-foot arrangement or radiating evenly in adults, straight, largest spines 13.5–20.5 × 0.3–0.6 (–0.8) mm. Flowers nearly apical, 18–44 × 8–37 mm; outer tepals densely fringed; inner tepals 13–34 per flower, ascending or recurved only at tips, pale dull creamy yellow or pale greenish tan to pale yellow-orange or pale apricot, usually with well-defined darker midstripes of maroon, magenta, pink, brownish orange, or yellow-green, proximally reflective, mirroring anthers, 11–25 × 1.8–2.8 mm; outer filaments white, pale-pink, or white with pinkish distal 1/2, not contrasting with inner tepals; anthers bright orange-yellow; stigma lobes 4–11, erect or ascending, white to greenish white, nonstigmatic parts slightly pink, 2.5–4.5 mm. Fruits pale green, exposed parts sometimes dull rose-pink, ellipsoid to ovoid, 12–31 × 5–11 mm, succulent; floral remnant on fruit strongly persistent. Seeds reddish-brown, ± obovoid or comma-shaped, 1.4–1.8 mm, pitted. 2n = 22.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Jun(-Sep); fruiting time unknown.
Habitat: Desert calcicolous scrub, Larrea scrub, blackbrush scrub, pinyon-juniper woodlands, limestone or dolomite rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas (rarely granite or basalt)
Elevation: (300-)500-1700(-2400) m

Distribution

V4 428-distribution-map.gif

Ariz., Calif., Nev., Utah.

Discussion

Coryphantha chlorantha is vegetatively identical to C. vivipara in the broad sense; without fresh flowers or reliable flower data, only an expert can distinguish C. chlorantha from C. vivipara, with which it sometimes grows sympatrically. Populations of C. chlorantha can be distinguished by their small, less-widely opening flowers, which are usually yellowish or pale pink-and-cream-striped, in contrast with the large, widely opening, purple flowers of C. vivipara.

Coryphantha chlorantha is more easily distinguished from C. alversonii, with which it is allopatric. Flowers of both are intermediate between those of C. vivipara and C. sneedii. Like C. sneedii, but unlike C. alversonii, C. chlorantha is polymorphic with respect to flower color, at least in some parts of its range. The “green” morph, for which chlorantha was named, probably is in the minority. A history of misidentifications limits the reliability of published photographs and distribution maps. The Arizona report of C. alversonii (L. D. Benson 1969) was based upon misidentified C. chlorantha or C. vivipara var. rosea.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Coryphantha chlorantha"
bright orange-yellow +, yellow-green +, brownish orange +, pink +, magenta +  and maroon +
cushionlike +
circular to linear +
deciduous +  and persistent +
connected +
hourglass--shaped +
Allan D. Zimmerman +  and Bruce D. Parfitt +
(Engelmann) Britton & Rose +
spineless +  and naked +
hardened +
Mammillaria chlorantha +
triangular +
curved +  and straight +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
proliferating +
flattened +  and cylindric +
with mucilage +  and mucilaginous +
Ariz. +, Calif. +, Nev. +  and Utah. +
lenticular +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
(300-)500-1700(-2400) m +
not separating +
deciduous +  and persistent +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (4.4 cm44 mm <br />0.044 m <br />) +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
8mm;37mm +
indehiscent +
persistent +
1.5mm;50mm +
ovoid +  and narrowly fusiform or obovoid +
fleshy +  and juicy +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
Desert calcicolous scrub, Larrea scrub, blackbrush scrub, pinyon-juniper woodlands, limestone or dolomite rocky slopes, gravelly bajadas (rarely granite or basalt) +
ascending +  and porrect +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
recurved +  and ascending +
1.8mm;2.8mm +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br />) +
1.35 cm13.5 mm <br />0.0135 m <br /> (2.05 cm20.5 mm <br />0.0205 m <br />) +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
rudimentary +
flat +  and terete +
nearly +  and microscopic +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
tuberculate +
fluted;spheric;depressed-spheric or club-shaped +
fringed +  and toothed +
small +
yellow-green +, brownish orange +, pink +, magenta +  and maroon +
white with pinkish +, pale-pink +  and white +
not mucilaginous +
nonstigmatic +
rose-pink +  and pink +
12mm;31mm +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
succulent +
5mm;11mm +
deciduous +  and persistent +
Flowering Apr–Jun(-Sep) +  and fruiting time unknown. +
mucilaginous +
1/3 +  and 1/2 +
ridgelike +  and nipple--shaped +
colorless +  and white greenish or pinkish +
3;2;2;30 +
erose +  and entire +
rudimentary +
triangular +
arillate +  and strophiolate +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
glossy +  and shiny +
comma--shaped;obovoid +
adventitious +
1.65 cm16.5 mm <br />0.0165 m <br /> (1.9 cm19 mm <br />0.019 m <br />) +
gray +, white +  and pale pinkish +
weathering +
curved +  and straight +
deciduous +  and persistent +
7.5mm +  and 16.5mm +
15 (?) +  and 33 (?) +
annulate-ridged +, hairlike +, daggerlike +, subulate +  and acicular +
hard +  and rigid +
differentiated +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br />) +
decurrent +
unsegmented +
3.5cm;15cm +
tuberculate +
spheric +  and short cylindric +
succulent +
3.5cm;9.5cm +
white +  and greenish white +
ascending +  and erect +
protruding +  and flat +
large +  and small +
tuberculate +
Coryphantha vivipara var. buoflama +, Coryphantha vivipara var. deserti +, Escobaria deserti +  and Escobaria vivipara var. deserti +
adventitious +
tuberlike +
epipetric +  and epiphytic +
Coryphantha chlorantha +
Coryphantha +
species +
dull +  and glossy +
pitted +  and raised-reticulate +
9mm +  and 14mm +
conic +  and hemispheric or cylindric +
4mm +  and 7mm +
epiphytic;epiphytic;epiphytic +