Coryphantha macromeris

(Engelmann) Lemaire

Cactées, 35. 1868.

Common names: Nipple beehive cactus
Illustrated
Basionyms: Mammillaria macromeris Engelmann in F. A. Wislizenus, Mem. Tour N. Mexico, 97. 1848
Synonyms: Coryphantha macromeris var. runyonii (Britton & Rose) L. D. Benson Coryphantha macromeris Werdermann Coryphantha pirtlei Britton & Rose Coryphantha runyonii (Engelmann) Backeberg Lepidocoryphantha macromeris
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Treatment on page 224. Mentioned on page 219, 220, 222, 225, 236.

Plants profusely branched, ultimately forming low mats or hemispheric mounds to 100 cm diam., immature branches sometimes predominant, conspicuously tuberculate with projecting spines. Roots ± succulent in largest, often massive and difficult to excavate. Stems deep-seated, aerial portion conspicuous, hemispheric to short cylindric, shape sometimes obscured by profusion of immature branches, 5–23 × (1.5–) 4–8 (–13.5) cm; tubercles unusually large, conspicuous, (10–) 15–38 (–45) × 6–15 mm, ± flaccid or flabby; areolar glands seasonally conspicuous; areolar grooves short, extending 1/2–3/4 distance from spines toward tubercle axils; parenchyma mucilaginous; pith narrow, ca. 1/10 of lesser stem diam.; medullary vascular system absent. Spines 7–21 [–55] per areole; radial spines (3–) 9–15 (–18) per areole, white, gray, tan, or brown, (9–) 16–25 (–50) mm; subcentral spines 2–3 in adaxial part of areole; central spines (1–) 3–8 per areole, (tan to) pale gray to black, abaxial central spine porrect or descending, others weakly appressed or ± projecting spines, slightly curved, usually angular in cross-section (terete), sometimes flat and grooved on 1 side and rounded on the other, often slightly flexible, (15–) 25–35 (–55) mm, all equal or abaxial spine longest. Flowers apical or nearly so, 30–50 (–60) × (30–) 40–70 mm; outer tepals heavily fringed; inner tepals 20–25 per flower, bright-rose-pink or magenta, often with darker midstripes and paler margins, 30–40 × 4.5–6 mm; outer filaments greenish white throughout or distally purplish-pink; anthers bright-yellow; stigma lobes 6–13, white or pale-yellow, 3–6 mm. Fruits dark green, ovoid to obpyriform or ellipsoid, (10–) 13–25 (–30) × 12–18 mm; floral remnant strongly persistent. Seeds reddish-brown, ± comma-shaped to spheric, 1.2–1.5 mm, finely and weakly raised-reticulate. 2n = 22.


Phenology: Flowering Feb–Sep; fruiting (May-)Aug–Dec.
Habitat: Chihuahuan desert scrub, Tamaulipan thorn scrub, nearly all substrates including nearly pure gypsum, gravelly soils, usually sandy alluvium or clay, rarely crevices or steep slopes
Elevation: 30-1700(-2000) m

Distribution

V4 412-distribution-map.gif

N.Mex., Tex., Mexico (Chihuahua), Mexico (Coahuila), Mexico (Durango), Mexico (Zacatecas)

Discussion

Southern Texas populations of Coryphantha macromeris contain atypical individuals with proliferating small stems and shorter (stunted?) spines. Sexually mature stems branch from the tubercle axils, and the whole shoot becomes covered by immature branchlets. The immature branchlets proliferate profusely and asymmetrically faster than they can reach sexual maturity, obscuring the underlying symmetry of mature stems and forming irregular, asymmetric mounds. Such plants are the basis for C. macromeris var. runyonii (Britton & Rose) L. D. Benson, but they do not grow in pure populations. Therefore the name runyonii can not be used at varietal rank without including plants morphologically similar to typical C. macromeris from the Chihuahuan Desert.

Stunted or immature Coryphantha macromeris are variable, keying to Coryphantha with some difficulty, often having only 5–7 radial spines and lacking central spines. The strongly mucilaginous cortex is a useful field mark; even small slices of living tubercle tissue are visibly and tangibly slimy.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Coryphantha macromeris"
descending +  and porrect +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
bright-yellow +
cushionlike +
circular to linear +
deciduous +  and persistent +
connected +
hourglass--shaped +
Allan D. Zimmerman +  and Bruce D. Parfitt +
(Engelmann) Lemaire +
spineless +  and naked +
hardened +
Mammillaria macromeris +
triangular +
predominant +
tuberculate +
pale gray +  and black +
curved +  and straight +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
proliferating +
flattened +  and cylindric +
Nipple beehive cactus +
with mucilage +  and mucilaginous +
N.Mex. +, Tex. +, Mexico (Chihuahua) +, Mexico (Coahuila) +, Mexico (Durango) +  and Mexico (Zacatecas) +
30-1700(-2000) m +
not separating +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
nearly +  and apical +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
40mm;70mm +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
indehiscent +
persistent +, long +  and deciduous +
13mm;25mm +
ovoid +  and obpyriform or ellipsoid +
fleshy +  and juicy +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
Chihuahuan desert scrub, Tamaulipan thorn scrub, nearly all substrates including nearly pure gypsum, gravelly soils, usually sandy alluvium or clay, rarely crevices or steep slopes +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
rudimentary +
flat +  and terete +
nearly +  and microscopic +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
tuberculate +
fluted;spheric;depressed-spheric or club-shaped +
fringed +  and toothed +
small +
hemispheric +
projecting +  and appressed +
rounded +
greenish white throughout or distally purplish-pink +
mucilaginous +
deciduous +  and persistent +
Flowering Feb–Sep +  and fruiting (May-)Aug–Dec. +
mucilaginous +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (23 cm230 mm <br />0.23 m <br />) +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (13.5 cm135 mm <br />0.135 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
ridgelike +  and nipple--shaped +
colorless +  and white greenish or pinkish +
3;2;2;30 +
massive +
succulent +
erose +  and entire +
rudimentary +
triangular +
arillate +  and strophiolate +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
glossy +  and shiny +
less comma-shaped;spheric +
Illustrated +
adventitious +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
brown +, tan +, gray +  and white +
curved +  and straight +
deciduous +  and persistent +
9 (?) +  and 15 (?) +
annulate-ridged +, hairlike +, daggerlike +, subulate +  and acicular +
1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
hard +  and rigid +
differentiated +
decurrent +
unsegmented +
1cm;20cm +
deep-seated +
tuberculate +
flat-topped +, cylindric +, ovoid +, spheric +  and hemispheric +
succulent +
1cm;15cm +
pale-yellow +  and white +
protruding +  and flat +
large +  and small +
tuberculate +
Coryphantha macromeris var. runyonii +, Coryphantha macromeris +, Coryphantha pirtlei +, Coryphantha runyonii +  and Lepidocoryphantha macromeris +
adventitious +
tuberlike +
epipetric +  and epiphytic +
Coryphantha macromeris +
Coryphantha +
species +
dull +  and glossy +
pitted +  and raised-reticulate +
3.8 cm38 mm <br />0.038 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
15mm +  and 38mm +
conic +  and hemispheric or cylindric +
flabby +  and flaccid +
6mm +  and 15mm +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +
epiphytic;epiphytic;epiphytic +