Coryphantha tuberculosa

(Engelmann) A. Berger

Kakteen, 280. 1929.

Common names: Cob cactus white-column foxtail cactus
Illustrated
Basionym: Mamillaria tuberculosa Engelmann Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 3: 268. 1856 (Mamillaria)
Synonyms: Coryphantha dasyacantha var. varicolor (Tiegel) L. D. Benson Coryphantha varicolor Tiegel Escobaria dasyacantha var. varicolor (Tiegel) D. R. Hunt Escobaria tuberculosa (Engelmann) Britton & Rose
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Mentioned on page 195, 220, 222, 223.

Plants usually branched and small stemmed (to 50 branches), sometimes unbranched and large stemmed, corncob-like or pinecone-like on below-ground portion, on aboveground portion only on oldest plants, distal portion of stem ± obscured by spines. Roots ± diffuse. Stems ovoid to cylindric (spheric), 4–16 × (2.2–) 3–6 (–6.5) cm; tubercles (6–) 8–11 × 3–6 mm, firm; areolar glands absent; parenchyma not mucilaginous; druses in pith and cortex nearly microscopic, mostly spheric; pith 1/8–1/4 of lesser stem diam.; medullary vascular system absent. Spines (17–) 21–41 per areole, ashy white, gray, or pale tan, tips of largest spines pinkish tan to reddish-brown or reddish black, all straight; radial spines 15–41 per areole, gray, (5–) 7–12 (–13.5) mm, largest spines 0.1–0.2 mm diam.; subcentral spines 0–6 per areole; central spines usually 5; outer central spines (1–) 3 (–7) per areole, erect or ascending; inner central spines (0–) 2 per areole, porrect or descending, longest spines (5–) 10–15 (–18) × 0.2–0.3 (–0.5) mm. Flowers apical or nearly so, (18–) 20–30 (–32) × 20–45 (–4) mm, sterile distal part of flower tube 5–8.5 (–11) mm, longer than stamen-bearing part; outer tepals conspicuously fringed; inner tepals 21 per flower, pure white, pale-rose-pink, or pale lavender-pink, darker centrally, midstripes ± inconspicuous, (9–) 11–19 × 1.5–2.5 (–3.5) mm; outer filaments cream; anthers pale-yellow or nearly white; stigma lobes 4–6 (–8), white, (1.8–) 2–4 mm. Fruits bright red [green to maroon], ellipsoid, cylindric, or narrowly obovoid, (8–) 13–25 × 3.5–6.5 (–7.5) mm, not very succulent; floral remnant strongly persistent. Seeds reddish-brown, darker with age, obliquely obovoid, 0.9–1 mm, pitted. 2n = 22 (as C. strobiliformis, C. varicolor, and Escobaria tuberculosa).


Phenology: Flowering (Apr-)May–Aug; fruiting Jul–Oct.
Habitat: Stony grasslands, oak-juniper savannas, Larrea scrub, often with Agave lechuguilla, limestone mountainsides or igneous rocks and novaculite
Elevation: 500-1800(-2200) m

Distribution

V4 419-distribution-map.gif

N.Mex., Tex., Mexico (Chihuahua), Mexico (Coahuila), Mexico (Durango)

Discussion

The names Coryphantha strobiliformis and Escobaria strobiliformis have been misapplied to C. tuberculosa by some recent authors (e.g., L. D. Benson 1982). Those names were based on Echinocactus strobiliformis Poselger, which is C. chihuahuensis (Britton & Rose) A. Berger.

Despite strong superficial similarity to other species in the genus, Coryphantha tuberculosa seems taxonomically isolated. Coryphantha tuberculosa superficially resembles C. sneedii, from which it is distinguished by (1) giant lenticular druses absent (abundant in older pith and cortex of C. sneedii); (2) fruits in region of sympatry always red (green in most U.S. populations of C. sneedii); (3) maximal expansion of flowers in late afternoon, sometimes remaining fully open at sunset (unlike any other species of Coryphantha); (4) flowers larger than those of C. sneedii, either pure white or a characteristic shade of pale lavender-pink, identifiable at a glance when flowers are alive and open; (5) anthers pale yellow, nearly white (bright yellow in C. sneedii); and (6) sterile distal part of receptacular tube longer than the stamen-bearing portion (short in C. sneedii).

On igneous and metamorphic substrates populations of Coryphantha tuberculosa mostly have unbranched stems. D. Weniger (1984) considered such populations to represent C. varicolor Tiegel; their reproductive structures, however, are identical to those of C. tuberculosa. Without seeds or flowers, mature specimens from such populations sometimes are indistinguishable from C. dasyacantha [hence the synonym C. dasyacantha var. varicolor (Tiegel) L. D. Benson].

Coryphantha tuberculosa is the type species of the segregate genus Escobaria, which includes the coryphanthas with pitted seeds.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Coryphantha tuberculosa"
white +  and pale-yellow +
cushionlike +
circular to linear +
deciduous +  and persistent +
connected +
hourglass--shaped +
Allan D. Zimmerman +  and Bruce D. Parfitt +
(Engelmann) A. Berger +
spineless +  and naked +
hardened +
Mamillaria tuberculosa +
triangular +
curved +  and straight +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
proliferating +
flattened +  and cylindric +
Cob cactus +  and white-column foxtail cactus +
with mucilage +  and mucilaginous +
microscopic +
0.85 cm8.5 mm <br />0.0085 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.85 cm8.5 mm <br />0.0085 m <br />) +
N.Mex. +, Tex. +, Mexico (Chihuahua) +, Mexico (Coahuila) +  and Mexico (Durango) +
spheric +
500-1800(-2200) m +
not separating +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (3.2 cm32 mm <br />0.032 m <br />) +
4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
nearly +  and apical +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
20mm;45mm +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br /> (0.75 cm7.5 mm <br />0.0075 m <br />) +
indehiscent +
persistent +, long +  and deciduous +
13mm;25mm +
obovoid +, cylindric +  and ellipsoid +
succulent +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br />) +
Stony grasslands, oak-juniper savannas, Larrea scrub, often with Agave lechuguilla, limestone mountainsides or igneous rocks and novaculite +
descending +  and porrect +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
rudimentary +
flat +  and terete +
nearly +  and microscopic +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
tuberculate +
fluted;spheric;depressed-spheric or club-shaped +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
10mm +  and 15mm +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br />) +
fringed +  and toothed +
small +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (1.9 cm19 mm <br />0.019 m <br />) +
inconspicuous +
1.5mm +  and 2.5mm +
ascending +  and erect +
not mucilaginous +
stamen-bearing +
deciduous +  and persistent +
Flowering (Apr-)May–Aug +  and fruiting Jul–Oct. +
mucilaginous +
1/8 +  and 1/4 +
aboveground +  and below-ground +
ridgelike +  and nipple--shaped +
colorless +  and white greenish or pinkish +
3;2;2;30 +
erose +  and entire +
rudimentary +
triangular +
arillate +  and strophiolate +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
glossy +  and shiny +
obovoid +
Illustrated +
adventitious +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.35 cm13.5 mm <br />0.0135 m <br />) +
gray +, pale tan +  and ashy white +
curved +  and straight +
deciduous +  and persistent +
15 (?) +  and 41 (?) +
annulate-ridged +, hairlike +, daggerlike +, subulate +  and acicular +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
hard +  and rigid +
differentiated +
decurrent +
unsegmented +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (6.5 cm65 mm <br />0.065 m <br />) +
4cm;16cm +
tuberculate +
ovoid +  and cylindric +
succulent +
3cm;6cm +
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
protruding +  and flat +
large +  and small +
tuberculate +
Coryphantha dasyacantha var. varicolor +, Coryphantha varicolor +, Escobaria dasyacantha var. varicolor +  and Escobaria tuberculosa +
adventitious +
tuberlike +
epipetric +  and epiphytic +
Coryphantha tuberculosa +
Coryphantha +
species +
dull +  and glossy +
pitted +  and raised-reticulate +
pinkish tan +  and reddish-brown or reddish black +
straight +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
8mm +  and 11mm +
conic +  and hemispheric or cylindric +
3mm +  and 6mm +
stemmed +, unbranched +  and branched +
pinecone-like +  and corncob-like +
epiphytic;epiphytic;epiphytic +
large +  and small +