Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 9: 64. 1882.
Trees to 23 m, shrubby where subject to fires; crown conic at first, broadly columnar with age, dense. Bark smooth at first, remaining so or becoming rough, furrowed, fibrous. Branchlets decussate, 1.3–2.3 mm diam. Leaves usually with conspicuous, pitlike, abaxial gland that produces drop of resin, often highly glaucous. Pollen cones 2–5 × 2 mm; pollen-sacs mostly 4–6. Seed-cones globose or oblong, mostly 2–3 cm, gray or brown, often glaucous at first; scales mostly 3–4 pairs, smooth or with scattered resin blisters, sometimes with erect conic umbos to 4 mm, especially on apical scales. Seeds mostly 4–6 mm, light tan to dark-brown, not glaucous to heavily glaucous. 2n = 22.
Habitat: Canyon bottoms, pinyon-juniper woodland, chaparral
Elevation: 750–2000 m
Ariz., Calif., N.Mex., Tex., Mexico
Bark texture and foliage features have been used to distinguish geographic varieties or segregate species. Although bark texture may be consistent within populations, over the species as a whole there is complete intergradation between smooth and fibrous barks. Various forms are commonly cultivated and sometimes persistent in the southern United States.