Cynosurus echinatus

L.
Common names: Bristly dogtail
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 687.
Please click on the illustration for a higher resolution version.
Illustrator: Sandy Long

Copyright: Utah State University

Plants annual; tufted. Culms 9-70 cm, clustered or solitary. Sheaths smooth, glabrous; ligules 2.5-5 (10) mm, obtuse, entire; blades 3-13.5 (23) cm long, 2.5-14 mm wide, scab¬rous. Panicles 1-4 (8) cm long, 0.7-2 cm wide, ovoid to almost globose, unilateral. Spikelets 7-14 mm, subsessile or shortly pedicellate; pedicels to 1.6 mm. Sterile spikelets with 6-18 florets; glumes and lemmas similar, subulate to linear-lanceolate, glabrous, sometimes scabridulous, awned, awns to 8 mm. Fertile spikelets with 1-5 florets, glumes and lemmas dissimilar; glumes 5.5-12 mm long, 0.4-0.9 mm wide, narrowly lanceolate, laterally compressed, hyaline, glabrous, 1-veined, keeled, awned, awns 0.5-2.2 mm; rachilla internodes 0.9-1.3 mm; lemmas 4-7 mm, slightly dorsally compressed, chartaceous or coriaceous, not keeled, lower 1/2 smooth, glabrous, distal 1/2 villous or scabrous, apices hyaline, ciliolate, entire or bidentate, awned, awns 5-18 (25) mm; anthers 1-4 mm. 2n = 14.

Distribution

Wash., B.C., W.Va., N.J., N.Mex., Tex., La., N.C., S.C., Tenn., N.Y., Pa., Va., Calif., Ala., Ark., Ga., Conn., Md., Okla., Ohio, Mo., Mich., Mont., Miss., Oreg.

Discussion

Cynosurus echinatus is native to southern Europe. It is now established in dry, open habitats in North America, South America, and Australia.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number."unilateral" is not a number.

... more about "Cynosurus echinatus"
membranous +  and scarious +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Bidentate (?) +  and Entire (?) +
Sandy Long +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br /> (?) +
straight +
basal +  and terminal +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
swelling +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (13.5 cm135 mm <br />0.135 m <br />) +
not evident +
cross +, linear +  and narrowly lanceolate +
2.5mm;14mm +
almost +  and glabrous +
scabridulous +
spikelike +
Bristly dogtail +
not branching +
9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br /> (70 cm700 mm <br />0.7 m <br />) +
not woody +
Wash. +, B.C. +, W.Va. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, La. +, N.C. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, N.Y. +, Pa. +, Va. +, Calif. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Ga. +, Conn. +, Md. +, Okla. +, Ohio +, Mo. +, Mich. +, Mont. +, Miss. +  and Oreg. +
1/4 +  and 1/3 +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
1 +  and 5 +
sterile +  and bisexual +
compressed +
reduced +  and narrow +
5.5mm +  and 12mm +
shorter or longer +
subtending +
1 +  and 5 +
scabridulous +
keeled +, compressed +, lanceolate +, subulate +  and linear-lanceolate +
subequal +
0.4mm +  and 0.9mm +
uncinate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br />) +
1/5 +  and 1/2 +
Oblong (?) +  and Linear (?) +
globose +, linear to almost +  and spikelike +
scabrous +, villous +  and glabrous +
1/2 +, 1 +  and 5 +
scabridulous +
not keeled +, compressed +, subulate +  and linear-lanceolate +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
coriaceous +  and chartaceous +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
inconspicuous +
concealed +  and prominent +
2 +  and 1 +
well-developed +
2-keeled +
1cm +  and 4cm +
ovoid to almost +  and globose +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
scabridulous +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br />) +
dry +  and fleshy +
pedicellate +  and subsessile +
adaxial +  and concealing +
1 +  and 60 +
fertile +  and sterile +
compressed +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
Gramineae +
Cynosurus echinatus +
Cynosurus +
species +
membranous +
parallel +  and converging +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +