Dactylorhiza majalis var. junialis

(Vermeulen) Senghas

Jahresber. Naturwiss. Vereins Wuppertal 21–22: 126. 1968.

Common names: Leopard marsh orchid
IntroducedIllustrated
Basionym: Orchis latifolia var. junialis Vermeulen Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 43: 404. 1933
Synonyms: Dactylorhiza praetermissa subsp. junialis (Vermeulen) Soó Dactylorhiza praetermissa var. junialis (Vermeulen) Vermeulen Orchis pardalina
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 26. Mentioned on page 578.

Plants 20–55 (–70) cm. Stems 4–10.5 mm diam. Leaves: proximal leaves 4–5, sheathing; distal leaves 2–3, not sheathing, all dark green, heavily marked with purplish spots (some annular) on adaxial surface only, keeled abaxially, margins entire, proximal leaves well spaced along stem, lance-elliptic to oblong, slightly hooded at apex, largest 12–20+ × 1.5–5 (–6) cm, distal leaves sessile, narrowly lanceolate, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescences: floral bracts green to suffused with purple, often spotted, narrowly lanceolate, 6.5–15 × 2–5 mm, extending slightly beyond flowers. Flowers mauve to lavender; sepals and petals lanceolate, 6–10 × 3–4.5 mm, apex obtuse to acute; sepals suberect, prominently oblique at base, dark spotted; distal petals hooded; lip marked with red-violet loops (continuous or discontinuous), dashes, and spots, obcordate, shallowly 3-lobed, 7–11 × 9.5–14 mm, widest at middle; lateral lobes slightly to less often strongly reflexed, with shallow sinus on either side of small toothlike middle lobe 1–3.5 mm, apex obtuse to acute, usually exceeding lateral lobes by ca. 1 mm; spur straight to slightly downcurved, 4.5–7 × 2–4 mm, 1/2–2/3 as long as ovary. 2n = 80.


Phenology: Flowering late Jun (Ont)–late Jul (Nfld).
Habitat: Shores, seepage slopes, bogs
Elevation: 0–200 m

Distribution

V26 1183-distribution-map.jpg

Introduced; Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), Ont., Europe (Belgium), Europe (s England), Europe (n France), Europe (Luxembourg), Europe (Netherlands)

Discussion

Dactylorhiza majalis var. junialis occurs on seepage slopes in Ontario and in bogs in Newfoundland.

First discovered in 1959 in the town of Timmins, Ontario, and reported by F. Cowell to H. Andrews (1961), Dactylorhiza majalis var. junialis became known as the Timmins orchid. Originally identified as Orchis purpurella T. Stephenson & T. A. Stephenson, it was later assigned to Dactylorhiza maculata (Linnaeus) Soó (C. A. Luer 1975; P. M. Catling and V. R. Catling 1991), D. fuchsii (P. M. Catling and C. J. Sheviak 1993), and most recently D. majalis subsp. praetermissa var. junialis by R. M. Bateman (in S. J. Meades 1999), who suggested that the Timmins orchid and a population of Dactylorhiza in St. John’s, Newfoundland, may be the same taxon but from a different source (H. J. Clase and S. J. Meades 1996). The St. John’s plants differ from those in Timmins by having larger spurs and less defined lip markings. Although the original lakeshore habitat in Timmins was destroyed, plants transplanted in the local area have become naturalized along the Mattagami River.

Another controversial naturalized Dactylorhiza population occurs at Tilt Cove (Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland), near the site of an abandoned nickel and copper mine. It differs from the previous Dactylorhiza populations by its unspotted leaves; smaller, less marked flowers with short, conic spurs; and wetter, more basic (ultramafic) habitat. According to local accounts, its presence dates to the early 1900s, when mining equipment, packed in hay, was imported from England (S. J. Meades 1999). It remained unknown to the botanical community until found by S. G. Hay, A. Bouchard, and L. Brouillet in 1988. First identified as D. incarnata (S. G. Hay et al. 1990), it is known locally as the Tilt Cove orchid. Recently, R. M. Bateman tentatively identified the taxon as D. majalis subsp. praetermissa (southern marsh-orchid). He noted, however, that while the Tilt Cove plants most closely resemble subsp. praetermissa, they do not match exactly any European Dactylorhiza species. Additional studies are underway to obtain a more confident identification.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

No values specified.

self-pollination +
Obtuse (?) +  and Acute (?) +
Charles J. Sheviak +, Paul M. Catling +, Susan J. Meades +  and Richard M. Bateman +
(Vermeulen) Senghas +
spurred +  and sheathing +
Orchis latifolia var. junialis +
indehiscent +
not +  and articulate +
conduplicate +  and plicate +
flattened +, triangular +  and cylindric +
Leopard marsh orchid +
red-violet +
purplish spots +  and dark green +
lanceolate +  and keeled +
Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, Ont. +, Europe (Belgium) +, Europe (s England) +, Europe (n France) +, Europe (Luxembourg) +  and Europe (Netherlands) +
0–200 m +
spotted +, green +  and suffused with purple +
0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
3-merous +, sessile +  and pedicellate +
mauve +  and lavender +
Shores, seepage slopes, bogs +
lateral +  and terminal +
petiolate +, sessile +  and simple +
duplicate +, convolute +, whorled +, opposite +, distichous +  and alternate +
cauline +  and basal +
reduced +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
3-lobed +  and obcordate +
larger +
red-violet +
differing in form and color +
1-many-flowered +  and cymose +
pendent +  and erect +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
Flowering late Jun (Ont)–late Jul (Nfld). +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
Jahresber. Naturwiss. Vereins Wuppertal +
aerial +  and subterranean +
divided +
minute +
dark spotted +
free +, distinct +, adnate +  and connate +
lanceolate +
foliaceous +
not +  and alike +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
shallow +
Introduced +  and Illustrated +
red-violet +
straight +
4.5mm;7mm +
1/2 +  and 2/3 +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.05 cm10.5 mm <br />0.0105 m <br />) +
pendent +  and erect +
proliferous +
thickened +  and stout +
concave +, obcordate +  and reniform +
Dactylorhiza praetermissa subsp. junialis +, Dactylorhiza praetermissa var. junialis +  and Orchis pardalina +
Dactylorhiza majalis var. junialis +
Dactylorhiza majalis +
variety +
aquatic +, lithophytic +, terrestrial +  and epiphytic +
saprophytic +, photosynthetic +  and mycotrophic +