Dicentra formosa

(Haworth) Walpers

Repert. Bot. Syst. 1: 118. 1842.

Common names: Pacific bleeding-heart
IllustratedEndemic
Basionym: Fumaria formosa Haworth Bot. Repos. 6: plate 393. 1800
Synonyms: Dicentra saccata (Nuttall ex Torrey & A. Gray) Walpers
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 3.

Plants perennial, scapose, from elongate, stout rhizomes. Leaves (15-) 25-40 (-55) × (8-) 12-20 (-35) cm; blade with 3-5 orders of leaflets and lobes; abaxial surface and sometimes adaxial surface glaucous; penultimate lobes oblong, distal ones usually coarsely 3-toothed at apex, (4-) 10-20 (-50) × (1.5-) 3-4 (-8) mm. Inflorescences paniculate, 2-30-flowered, usually exceeding leaves; bracts linear-lanceolate, 4-7 (-12) × 1-2 mm, apex acuminate. Flowers pendent; sepals lanceolate to ovate or nearly round, 2-7 × 2-3 mm; petals rose-purple, pink, cream, or pale-yellow, rarely white; outer petals (12-) 16-19 (-24) × 3-6 mm, reflexed portion 2-5 mm; inner petals (12-) 15-18 (-22) mm, blade 2-4 mm wide, claw linear-elliptic to linear-lanceolate, 7-10 (-12) × 1-2 mm, crest 1-2 mm diam., exceeding apex by 1-2 mm; filaments of each bundle connate from base to shortly below anthers except for a 2-3 mm portion of median filament just above base; nectariferous tissue borne along distinct portion of median filament; style 3-9 mm; stigma rhomboid, 2-horned. Capsules oblong, 4-5 mm diam. Seeds reniform, ca. 2 mm diam., finely reticulate, elaiosome present.

Discussion

Subspecies 2 (2 in the flora).

Andrews has been cited almost universally as the author of Fumaria formosa. However, Haworth's authorship of the sixth volume of Andrews' Botanists' Repository (in which this species was originally described) generally has been overlooked, and it was actually Haworth who first delineated F. formosa (W. T. Stearn 1944).

Early attempts to cross Dicentra formosa with D. eximia (2n = 16) failed, possibly because the D. formosa parents were tetraploids. Several later hybrids between the two species received plant patents and have become widely marketed throughout the flora area and elsewhere (K. R. Stern 1961, 1968; K. R. Stern and M. Ownbey 1971).

Both subspecies, as well as hybrids between them and Dicentra eximia, are widely cultivated.

The Skagit used a decoction of the roots of Dicentra formosa to expel worms; they chewed raw roots for toothaches (D. E. Moerman 1986, species not indicated).

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Petals rose-purple to pink, rarely white; leaf blades adaxially not glaucous (rarely glaucescent). Dicentra formosa subsp. formosa
1 Petals cream-colored or rarely pale yellow, rose-tipped; leaf blades adaxially distinctly glaucous. Dicentra formosa subsp. oregana
... more about "Dicentra formosa"
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
3mm;4mm +
Kingsley R. Stern +
(Haworth) Walpers +
swollen +
Fumaria formosa +
2mm;4mm +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
linear-lanceolate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
dehiscent +  and indehiscent +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
linear-elliptic +  and linear-lanceolate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
Pacific bleeding-heart +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
B.C. +, Calif. +, Oreg. +  and Wash. +
Each (?) +  and Plane (?) +
dehiscent +  and indehiscent +
terminal +, leaf-opposed +, extra-axillary +  and axillary +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br /> (55 cm550 mm <br />0.55 m <br />) +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (35 cm350 mm <br />0.35 m <br />) +
25cm;40cm +
cauline +  and basal +
12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
serrate +, crenate +  and entire +
1.9 cm19 mm <br />0.019 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br /> (1.9 cm19 mm <br />0.019 m <br />) +
3 +, both +  and 1 +
keeled +, spurred +  and swollen +
dissimilar +  and alike +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
obovoid;narrowly cylindric +
3-toothed +  and oblong +
connate +  and coherent +
not spongy +
perpendicular +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Repert. Bot. Syst. +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (?) +
reniform +
lanceolate +  and ovate or nearly round +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
hollow +, branching +  and simple +
climbing +  and prostrate +
persistent +
2-horned +  and rhomboid +
thread-like +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (?) +
glaucous +  and glabrous +
Dicentra saccata +
Dicentra formosa +
Dicentra +
species +