Dicranella heteromalla

(Hedwig) Schimper

Coroll. Bryol. Eur., 13. 1856,.

Basionyms: Dicranum heteromallum Hedwig Sp. Musc. Frond., 128. 1801
Synonyms: Campylopus henrici Renauld & Cardot Dicranella fitzgeraldii Renauld & Cardot Dicranella heteromalla var. latinervis Cardot & Thériot Dicranella heteromalla var. orthocarpa (Hedwig) A. Jaeger & Sauerbeck Dicranum orthocarpum
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 391. Mentioned on page 17, 18, 23, 363, 387, 395.

Plants to 10, rarely 40 mm, in rather shiny, yellow to dark green tufts. Leaves erect to falcate-secund, 2–3 mm, gradually narrowed from a lanceolate base to a subula largely occupied by the costa; margins erect, serrulate in the distal half of the limb; costa excurrent; cells in 1–3 rows above the leaf middle, rather short-rectangular, 11–14 × 4–7 µm. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta 5–15 mm, yellowish. Capsule 1–1.5 mm, suberect or sometimes inclined to horizontal, cylindric, often curved, asymmetric, tapered at the neck, usually ± obliquely furrowed and constricted on 1 side below an oblique mouth; annulus consisting of 1 row of small cells, persistent; operculum long-rostrate; peristome teeth 400–500 µm, divided 1/2 length distally. Spores 14–18 µm, faintly roughened.


Phenology: Capsules mature spring and summer.
Habitat: Soil of shaded banks, especially along woodland trails, and soil covering upturned roots
Elevation: low to high elevations

Distribution

V27 556-distribution-map.gif

Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Ala., Alaska, Ark., Calif., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Central America (Costa Rica), Central America (Honduras), Central America (Panama), South America (Colombia), Europe, Asia (China), Asia (e Himalayas), Asia (Japan), Atlantic Islands (Canary Islands), Atlantic Islands (Madeira), n, e Africa

Discussion

Dicranella heteromalla is a common species recognized by suberect, obliquely furrowed capsules tapered toward the base and oblique at the mouth. The leaf margins are distinctly toothed above the middle. Reports for Oklahoma are by B. D. Mahler and W. F. Mahler (1980) and from Texas by E. Whitehouse and F. McAllister (1954).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Dicranella heteromalla"
Howard A. Crum† +
(Hedwig) Schimper +
short to long +
differentiated +
lanceolate +
Dicranum heteromallum +
microphyllous +
pseudomonoicous +, dioicous +, autoicous +  and sexual +
reproduction +  and asexual +
cucullate +
inclined +  and horizontal +
tapered +  and cylindric +
constricted +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
specialized +
persistent +  and deciduous +
papillose +  and mammillose +
dioicous +  and sexual +
short-rectangular +
not differentiated +
4um +  and 7um +
subpercurrent +
papillose +  and smooth +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Alaska +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Central America (Costa Rica) +, Central America (Honduras) +, Central America (Panama) +, South America (Colombia) +, Europe +, Asia (China) +, Asia (e Himalayas) +, Asia (Japan) +, Atlantic Islands (Canary Islands) +, Atlantic Islands (Madeira) +, n +  and e Africa +
low to high elevations +
Soil of shaded banks, especially along woodland trails, and soil covering upturned roots +
2-stratose +  and 1-stratose +
falcate-secund +
straight +
narrowed +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
long-rostrate +
nonpitted +  and pitted +
toothed +  and forked +
short-acuminate +, concave +  and ovate +
pitted-striolate +
16 +  and single +
papillose +  and striolate +
Capsules mature spring and summer. +
undifferentiated +
Coroll. Bryol. Eur., +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
flexuose +
elongate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
red +  and pitted-striolate +
papillose +
spheric +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
superficial +
furrowed +  and plicate +
Campylopus henrici +, Dicranella fitzgeraldii +, Dicranella heteromalla var. latinervis +, Dicranella heteromalla var. orthocarpa +  and Dicranum orthocarpum +
Dicranella heteromalla +
Dicranella +
species +
not deciduous +
lanceolate +
dioicous +, sexual +  and asexual +
yellow +  and dark green +