Dicranella hilariana

(Montagne) Mitten

J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 12: 31. 1869,.

Basionyms: Dicranum hilarianum Montagne Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 12: 52, plate 1, fig. 2. 1839
Synonyms: Dicranella herminieri Bescherelle Dicranella laxiretis Renauld & Cardot Dicranella leptotrichoides Renauld & Cardot Microdus debilis (T. Drummond) Paris Microdus laxiretis (Renauld & Cardot) Paris Microdus leptotrichoides (Renauld & Cardot) Paris
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 390. Mentioned on page 387.

Plants 3–8 mm, yellowbrown to dull green. Leaves erect-flexuose to subsecund, 1–2 mm, narrowly lanceolate, gradually tapered to a narrow, blunt or rounded, usually serrulate tip; margins ± recurved, often strongly so; costa subpercurrent, sometimes ± rough abaxially above, about 1/4 the leaf base; cells subquadrate to short-rectangular. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta yellow becoming brown or reddish with age, 5–7mm. Capsule erect and symmetric, oblong-ovoid to subcylindric, 0.8–1 mm, smooth, usually ± contracted below the mouth when dry and empty; annulus compound; operculum long-rostrate, inclined, about as long as the urn; peristome teeth 250–290 µm, divided more than 1/2 length distally. Spores 16–20 µm, finely papillose.


Phenology: Capsules mature late summer.
Habitat: Moist clay on ditch banks at low elevations

Distribution

V27 554-distribution-map.gif

Ala., Fla., Ga., La., Miss., S.C., Mexico, West Indies, Central America (Belize), Central America (Costa Rica), Central America (Guatemala), Central America (Honduras), Central America (Panama), South America (Brazil), South America (Peru)

Discussion

Distinctive features of Dicranella hilariana include the yellowish seta, erect, smooth capsule, short leaf cells, and leaf tips that are often blunt and crenulate. The species is subject to considerable variation in length and thickness of cell walls, which vary from subquadrate, this often only at the tips of leaves, to long-rectangular or, even linear owing to thickened side walls. The setae are yellow, but with age they take on a dull brownish or even a reddish hue. Various names have been used for plants with short laminal cells, those with somewhat longer, thin-walled cells, and those with cells linear because of thick and often golden walls. As suggested by the large number of synonyms, differences are at best trivial and completely intergradient. The South Carolina report was by H. A. Crum and L. E. Anderson (1981).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Dicranella hilariana"
persistent +  and deciduous +
Howard A. Crum† +
(Montagne) Mitten +
short to long +
differentiated +
Dicranum hilarianum +
microphyllous +
pseudomonoicous +, dioicous +, autoicous +  and sexual +
reproduction +  and asexual +
cucullate +
arcuate +  and straight +
oblong-ovoid +  and subcylindric +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
specialized +
persistent +  and deciduous +
papillose +  and mammillose +
dioicous +  and sexual +
subquadrate +  and short-rectangular +
not differentiated +
subpercurrent +
papillose +  and smooth +
Ala. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, La. +, Miss. +, S.C. +, Mexico +, West Indies +, Central America (Belize) +, Central America (Costa Rica) +, Central America (Guatemala) +, Central America (Honduras) +, Central America (Panama) +, South America (Brazil) +  and South America (Peru) +
Moist clay on ditch banks at low elevations +
2-stratose +  and 1-stratose +
erect-flexuose +
tapered +  and lanceolate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
entire +, serrate +  and serrulate +
long-rostrate +
nonpitted +  and pitted +
toothed +  and forked +
short-acuminate +, concave +  and ovate +
pitted-striolate +
16 +  and single +
papillose +  and striolate +
/2 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
Capsules mature late summer. +
undifferentiated +
J. Linn. Soc., Bot. +
1 (?) +  and 2 (?) +
with age;yellow becoming brown or reddish +
flexuose +
elongate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
red +  and pitted-striolate +
papillose +
spheric +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
superficial +
furrowed +  and plicate +
Dicranella herminieri +, Dicranella laxiretis +, Dicranella leptotrichoides +, Microdus debilis +, Microdus laxiretis +  and Microdus leptotrichoides +
Dicranella hilariana +
Dicranella +
species +
not deciduous +
rounded +  and blunt +
lanceolate +
dioicous +, sexual +  and asexual +
yellowbrown +  and dull green +