Dicranum viride

(Sullivant & Lesquereux) Lindberg

Hedwigia 2: 70. 1863,.

Basionyms: Campylopus viridis Sullivant & Lesquereux in W. S. Sullivant, Musc. Hepat. U.S., 103. 1856
Synonyms: Dicranum fulvum subsp. viride (Sullivant & Lesquereux) Lindberg Dicranum fulvum var. viride (Sullivant & Lesquereux) Frye
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 417. Mentioned on page 398, 399, 406, 418, 420.

Plants in loose to dense tufts, yellowish to dark green, glossy to dull. Stems 1.5–4.5 cm, sparsely tomentose with whitish to reddish-brown rhizoids. Leaves erect-spreading or somewhat falcate-secund, rigid, erect below and flexuose above when dry, smooth, (3–) 4–6 (–7) × 0.5–0.8 mm, most of the leaf tips broken off, concave below to canaliculate above, from a lanceolate base to a long-acuminate, acute apex (when present); margins entire, sometimes slightly denticulate at apex; laminae 1-stratose or with some 2-stratose regions in patches between margin and costa; costa excurrent, 1/5–1/4 the width of the leaves at base, smooth or slightly rough on abaxial surface in distal half, abaxial ridges absent, with a row of guide cells, two weakly developed stereid bands above and below, not extending above the leaf middle, adaxial and abaxial epidermal layers of cells not differentiated or with a few cells enlarged in both layers; cell-walls between lamina cells not or weakly bulging; leaf cells usually smooth; alar cells 1-stratose or with a few 2-stratose regions, well-differentiated, often extending to costa; proximal laminal cells rectangular to short-rectangular, not pitted or with few pits, (11–) 33–42 (–51) × (7–) 9–10 (–13) µm; median laminal cells regularly quadrate, not pitted, (9–) 15–22 (–26) × (5–) 7–8 (–11) µm; distal laminal cells small, quadrate, not pitted. Sexual condition dioicous; male plants as large as females; interior perichaetial leaves abruptly long-acuminate, convolute-sheathing. Seta 1–1.6 cm, solitary, yellow to reddish-brown. Capsule 1.5–2.5 mm, straight, erect, smooth, slightly furrowed when dry, brown to reddish-brown; operculum 1–1.5 mm. Spores 9–22 µm.


Phenology: Capsules mature in spring.
Habitat: Commonly growing on the base of trees (usually deciduous but sometimes coniferous, especially Thuja), rotten logs, stumps, rarely soil and acidic or limestone rock
Elevation: 40-1400 m

Distribution

Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Alaska, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis., Europe, Asia

Discussion

Dicranum viride has been reported from Alaska by I. A. Worley and Z. Iwatsuki (1970) and from Kentucky by J. A. Snider et al. (1988). It is a not uncommon species of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. It rarely produces sporophytes and is distinctive because of the fragile, deciduous leaf tips, which probably serve as a means of asexual reproduction. It has on occasion been confused with 22. D. fulvum, which has nearly the same distribution, and rarely with 21. D. fragilifolium where their ranges overlap in the Great Lakes region. For distinctions see the discussions under those species.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Dicranum viride"
persistent +  and deciduous +
differentiated +
Robert R. Ireland Jr. +
(Sullivant & Lesquereux) Lindberg +
short to long +
differentiated +
long-acuminate +  and lanceolate +
Campylopus viridis +
microphyllous +
pseudomonoicous +, dioicous +, autoicous +  and sexual +
flagelliform +  and terete +
reproduction +  and asexual +
cucullate +
brown +  and reddish-brown +
cylindric +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
with a few 2-stratose regions +  and 1-stratose +
generally orange +  and brown +
specialized +
papillose +  and mammillose +
pseudomonoicous +, dioicous +  and sexual +
inflated +
well-differentiated +
1/5 +  and 1/4 +
toothed +
dioicous +  and sexual +
spreading +, erect-patent +  and erect-appressed +
smooth +  and rugose +
Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Alaska +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, N.H. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Europe +  and Asia +
reddish-brown +  and pitted-striolate +
40-1400 m +
Commonly growing on the base of trees (usually deciduous but sometimes coniferous, especially Thuja), rotten logs, stumps, rarely soil and acidic or limestone rock +
with some 2-stratose regions +  and 1-stratose +
enlarged +
falcate-secund +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
papillose +, mammillose +, nonpitted +  and pitted +
flexuose +
4mm;6mm +
concave +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (?) +
denticulate +
arcuate +  and straight +
long-rostrate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
nonpitted +  and pitted +
toothed +  and forked +
short-acuminate +, concave +  and ovate +
pitted-striolate +
16 +  and single +
papillose +  and striolate +
Capsules mature in spring. +
9um;10um +
undifferentiated +
with few pits +  and not pitted +
rectangular +  and short-rectangular +
whitish +  and reddish-brown +
smooth +  and papillose +
1 +  and 2 +
well-developed +
yellow;reddish-brown +
flexuose +  and straight +
0 +  and 6 +
elongate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
1/3 +  and 1/2 +
spherical +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
superficial +
Dicranum fulvum subsp. viride +  and Dicranum fulvum var. viride +
Dicranum viride +
Dicranum +
species +
deciduous +
lanceolate +
yellowish +  and dark green +
glossy +  and dull +
female +  and male +