Dittrichia graveolens

(Linnaeus) Greuter

Exsicc. Genav. Conserv. Bot. Distrib. Fasc. 4: 71. 1973.

Common names: Stinkwort
IntroducedIllustrated
Basionym: Erigeron graveolens Linnaeus Cent. Pl. I, 28. 1755
Synonyms: Inula graveolens (Linnaeus) Desfontaines
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 19. Treatment on page 473.

Plants viscid, rank smelling, 20–130 cm; stems ± pilose and stipitate-glandular. Leaf-blades linear to lance-linear, 1–3 (–7) cm × 1–3 (–10) mm, margins entire or denticulate, apices acute, faces pilosulous to hirtellous and minutely stipitate-glandular. Phyllaries 1–8 mm. Ray-florets (6–) 10–12 (–16); corolla laminae 2–5 (–7) mm. Disc-florets 9–14+; corollas 3–4 mm. Cypselae 1.5–2 mm; pappi 3–4 (–5) mm. 2n = 18 (Morocco).


Phenology: Flowering Sep–Nov.
Habitat: Disturbed fields, roadways, estuarine borders
Elevation: 0–200 m

Distribution

V19-792-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; Calif., N.J., N.Y., Europe (Balkan Peninsula), Europe (sw Italy), Asia (India), Africa (South Africa), Australia

Discussion

Dittrichia graveolens was collected as a ruderal in Connecticut in the 1930s, and collections from New York in the late 1940s recorded it as abundant in areas where road construction was underway. It appears to be recently introduced in California, where it has spread rapidly and has the potential to become a noxious weed (R. E. Preston 1997). Dittrichia graveolens has been shown to cause allergic contact dermatitis (J. N. Burry and P. M. Kloot 1982). The plants produce sesquiterpene lactones (G. S. d’Alcontres et al. 1973; A. Rustaiyan et al. 1987; R. Lanzetta et al. 1991), which have been shown for many composites to be linked to allergic contact dermatitis in humans (J. C. Mitchell and G. Dupuis 1971). Little evidence exists that the plants are toxic, although oxalate poisoning has been reported to be associated with grazing (kind of animals not reported) of D. graveolens (C. Lamp and F. Collet 1979), and fishermen in southern Italy reportedly use the macerated leaves to stun fish (Lanzetta et al.). Livestock deaths due to ingestion of D. graveolens have been linked to enteritis caused by the barbed pappus bristles puncturing the small intestine (C. A. Gardner and H. W. Bennetts 1956; D. J. Schneider and J. L. Du Plessis 1980).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Dittrichia graveolens"
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
pilosulous +  and hirtellous +
scarious +
1mm +  and 3mm +
ovate +  and lanceovate or linear +
paniculiform +  and racemiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
Robert E. Preston +
(Linnaeus) Greuter +
decurrent +
Erigeron graveolens +
compound +  and simple +
Stinkwort +
reddish +  and yellow +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
ellipsoid +  and terete +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Calif. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Europe (Balkan Peninsula) +, Europe (sw Italy) +, Asia (India) +, Africa (South Africa) +  and Australia +
0–200 m +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
pilosulous +  and hirtellous +
acute;denticulate;entire +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Disturbed fields, roadways, estuarine borders +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +
each +  and sessile +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
campanulate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +
deltate +
serrate +, dentate +  and entire +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
pilosulous +  and hirtellous +
acute +, denticulate +  and entire +
1mm +  and 3mm +
2-carpellate +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
persistent +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Flowering Sep–Nov. +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
Exsicc. Genav. Conserv. Bot. Distrib. Fasc. +
smelling +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (130 cm1,300 mm <br />1.3 m <br />) +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
alveolate +  and smooth +
flat;convex +
exalbuminous +
Introduced +  and Illustrated +
prostrate +  and ascending +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +
Inula graveolens +
Dittrichia graveolens +
Dittrichia +
species +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (130 cm1,300 mm <br />1.3 m <br />) +